PCB for Aviation Requires Flexible Manufacturing
There are numerous considerations that must be considered for printed circuit boards in aviation, so only the best can be used. Choosing the right PCB manufacturer is essential to achieving the best results.
JarnisTech is a pioneer in the field of printed circuit board assembly and fabrication since 2002. We are certified AS9100D and all boards we produce meet Class 3 Standards
JarnisTech is able to assist with everything from prototypes to multilayer complex projects. Contact us today to get a quote on your next PCB project.
What Is Aerospace PCB ?
The aerospace industry uses aerospace PCBs. Multiple devices are used in military war craft and other airplanes.
In this highly sensitive industry, special PCBs are necessary. Aerospace printed circuit boards offer the best solution.
These PCBs consider factors like durability, shock absorption, humidity, and others. These factors make them ideal for aerospace.
Also, the type of material they should be made of depends on the task they are intended for. Laminates, copper, and aluminum substrates are the most common materials because of the high temperatures to which airplanes are exposed.
Anodized aluminum can be used to combat the oxidation that is often caused by heat.
Types of Aerospace PCB
There are many types and varieties of PCBs available for the aerospace industry, depending on their nature. These applications include:
These circuit boards have all of their components on one side. They are used to make switching relays in the aerospace industry. They are also used to make surveillance machine circuits.
Double Sided PCBs
It is a circuit board with two layers that can mount components on it. They are used in the manufacture of power supplies in aerospace. They are also essential in LED lighting.
PCBs with multilayers have three layers of conductive material, used in signal transmission devices for the aerospace industry. Multilayer PCB is also used in the production of devices for GPS technology and aerospace probes.
Features of Aerospace PCBs
You should pay attention to the following factors before investing in a PCB for aerospace industry:
● Durable and reliable.
● Able to withstand radiation.
● Ability to use varying frequencies.
● Highly reliable even in harsh conditions.
● Reliable PCB material to Aerospace PCB.
● Able to withstand shock/shock absorption.
● Rust resistance.
● Conform to all aerospace regulations and standards.
● Ability to optimize the operation of aerospace systems.
What Factors Affect Aerospace Printed Circuit boards ?
The aerospace industry uses a variety of PCBs, such as rigid 1,2-sided, multilayer, flexible, rigid-flex, and HDI/Microvia/Build-up/IC Substrates depending on the application, including power supplies, power converters, radio communication, engine control systems, radars, sensors for health monitoring, etc.
With the ultimate goal of improving fuel efficiency, the aerospace industry is focusing on the use of advanced materials to make aircraft lightweight and durable. The components of PCBs are being reduced in size to make them lighter and more space-efficient. The aerospace industry demands stronger PCBs that can withstand extreme conditions. The most important properties of PCBs for aerospace applications are their ability to withstand high temperatures, shocks, reliability and durability.
The following some of the harsh conditions aerospace circuit boards experience:
It is possible for electronics in space to be exposed to temperatures as low as -150 degrees Celsius. Radiation is the only method of transferring heat in a vacuum, since there is no air to transfer it.
To withstand extreme temperatures, aerospace PCBs are made of high-temperature laminates, copper and aluminum substrates. To prevent heat transfer to other electronic parts, a thermal compound is often used.
In general, components can be placed approximately 20 thousandths of an inch from the surface of a board. Or, you may use space to aid thermal dissipation. In aviation, Fans may be used in aviation to remove excess heat.
Oxidation can also be caused by heat. Anodized aluminum can help to eliminate any problems this could cause.
The aerospace industry’s electronics can also be subject to mechanical abuse, such as vibration and excessive shock.
Manufacturers sometimes modify PCB designs to make sure that they can withstand these kinds of conditions. As an alternative to soldering, some engineers press pins into the board to help hold components in place. Sometimes, they combine pins with soldering to provide additional security.
In addition to protecting PCBs from high and low temperatures, some strategies can also protect them from shock and vibration.By applying thermal compounds to a board, fluctuation effects can be reduced. It is also possible to relieve some of the stress on the PCB by leaving a small space between the components and the surface of the board.
The outer space use of PCBs presents a unique challenge.If equipment is not designed to withstand the high levels of radiation in space, it can suffer damage.
Different materials are used by manufacturers to shield electronics against radiation. Also, they reduce the size of components so that there are fewer parts that can be damaged by radiation. Backups are also built in to ensure that one radiation event does not disable the entire operation.
Antifuse technology is a method that creates permanent routes between transistors that can conduct electricity. Radiation resistance has been demonstrated to be greater for it. In other types of circuits, thinner layers of material have been used to increase their resiliency.
As radio waves are used to communicate in aviation, it’s essential that signals are not degraded in any way during transmission.
Manufacturers must use shielding on strategic locations on the PCB to ensure radio communications are properly transmitted. Sometimes, antennas may also be used. Additionally, ensuring that radio communications are properly transmitted can be achieved by reducing transmission lines.
Our Aerospace Industry Experience
Our team is certified to work on any type of aerospace project. Our industry experience allows us to select the right materials based on the purpose and function of each printed circuit board. As we know, PCBs of this quality must be manufactured in accordance with rigorous, time-sensitive standards and acceptance criteria.
These Are Just a Few of the Many Projects We Have Been Involved in Within the Aerospace Industry:
● Power supplies.
● Flying systems.
● Vision systems.
● Unmanned systems.
● Battery heating devices.
● Lighting strips.
● Wind/pressure sensing devices.
● Window shades sensors for planes.
● Communication and monitoring equipment.
● Sonar / Piezoelectric weapons and warfare devices
What Are the Factors To Consider When Designing Aerospace PCBs ?
Select High-quality Materials
Reliability and durability are essential requirements in the aerospace industry. In this type of application, since maintenance interventions are not possible or at exorbitant costs, these circuits must operate continuously and without malfunctions for long periods of time (generally from 5 years to 15 years or beyond). It is important to use components and materials of high quality that are available for a long time on the market.
Anodized aluminum is a common alternative to copper, which can solve many problems associated with heat dissipation. In fact, anodized aluminum’s thermal conductivity is five to ten times higher than traditional materials like FR-4, and it has a tenfold thinner thickness. Furthermore, it is also capable of transferring heat more efficiently than conventional PCBs and reduces heat-induced oxygenation.
Use Heavy Copper Technology
Copper thicknesses of 2-6 oz/ft2 (or more) in heavy copper technology allow heat dissipation in a natural way, even when there are high-intensity currents. To further increase heat dissipation, many manufacturers recommend combining heavy copper solutions with numerous thermal vias.
Adhere to Reference Standards
In the aerospace industry, PCBs must operate with minimum maintenance and must meet rigorous quality and safety standards. It is therefore imperative that designers and manufacturers of PCBs for aerospace applications follow specific reference standards. Reference standards include IPC 6012DS, an addendum to IPC-6012D for rigid printed circuit boards in aerospace and military applications. This standard is an enhanced version of the IPC Class 3 standard.
Another important standard in the aerospace industry is AS/EN 9100, which includes a series of standards for quality and risk management in the space industry developed by IAQG (International Aerospace Quality Group). These standards are for quality and risk management within the aerospace industry. This standard, which is widely accepted and used in the aerospace industry, represents the best quality management system.
The AS/EN 9100 standard is more stringent than the ISO9001 standard. It is required that PCBs designed for such an application comply with the standard and be accompanied by a certification attesting to the quality of the manufacturing process.
Provide Excellent Thermal Management
As stated above, aerospace PCBs should ensure heat dissipation that is excellent without the need for external heatsinks. Aside from heavy copper technology and extensive thermal via use, special solutions using Pyralux AP, FR-408, and other metal materials and components can also be used. Furthermore, by increasing the distance between components, more space can be provided for heat dissipation than on traditional PCBs.
Use Conformal Coating
For the best PCB materials, extreme operating conditions must be tolerated. Nickel gold electrolytic coatings, immersion gold coatings, chemical silver, and hot air solder leveling are the main conformal coating techniques. Conformal coatings protect against heat, humidity and water, which are all possible can be encountered conditions in aerospace applications. The final printed circuit board should also be protected from contamination or accidental short circuits by an acrylic-based spray after conformal coating.
● It is important that PCB traces are sized to handle the maximum current load in all operating conditions, as this will ensure excellent heat dissipation.
● A circuit with high frequency signals must be designed with traces that have angles smaller than 45°, so that signals travel along the circuit uniformly and regularly.
● In fact, high-frequency components can produce disturbances and waveforms capable of affecting the operation of low-frequency electronic components. They should be separated.
● As a result of the waveforms and noise, the signal quality is deteriorated, compromising the integrity of the signal. For these applications, this requirement is mandatory.
● In the design phase, casings made of aluminum or similar materials should be used as physical shields to protect clock signals.
In RF printed circuits, the rules must also be followed in order to reduce or limit crosstalk.
Use of Rigid-flex and Flexible PCBs
Avionics systems and satellites often use flexible and rigid-flexible printed circuit boards. They are mainly made with polyamide rather than FR-4, which is a significant difference from those used in automotive or industrial applications. This material is able to adapt to small spaces. It is lightweight and resists chemical agents and heat, and it guarantees great durability.
We have the following capabilities for aerospace PCB Assembly:
● Robust PCB design capabilities
● Use the correct material according to specifications
● Special radiation and thermal considerations ensure the PCB is resistant to severe.
● Environmental conditions
● Robust testing, including vibration and thermal testing
● Conformance to the highest industry standards
To meet the complex PCB products requirements of aerospace customers, we have the necessary value-engineering expertise, as well as program management and quality systems of the highest caliber.
Our printed circuit boards are insulated with high grade thermal compounds to reduce vibration issues caused by pretinning stranded wires with plenty of extra spacing between the components. In addition, it supports the aerospace printed circuit boards in keeping terminal profiles current as well as ensuring a sufficient solder quality to ensure accurate coating.
The military aerospace PCB assembly is checked for thermal profiles, heat settings, wave soldering process, and a quality inspection according to J-STD standards before finalizing. Our manufacturing facilities hold a wide range of certifications and licenses that make it possible to meet you turnkey PCB aerospace requirements.
Aerospace PCB Assembly Process
Designing: Planning is an important step in any manufacturing process.The layout and design of the desired aerospace PCB are formulated. All specifications have been checked and any that could cause problems are corrected.
Solder Paste Application: The board is coated with solder paste. To create different shapes and sizes, stencils are used. This makes sure that the solder paste gets applied in the correct place. After placing the components, the solder paste must be properly applied and solidified. The components can stick to the board.
● The aerospace PCB goes through a conveyor belt. Belts are reflown in reflow ovens.
● The oven complies with industrial standards. It helps to melt the solder paste excess.
● The components are then exposed to cool heaters.As the paste cools down and solidifies, the components are firmly attached to the board.
Placing Components: This is an automated process. This allows components to be placed in the desired areas of the board. Robotic machines are used in aerospace PCB assembly. Because they are based on design software, robotic machines can be very accurate.
Inspection: An inspection is performed on the aerospace PCB. This allows you to identify any functional issues. First, the inspection is done manually. Further inspections are performed using digitized optical options.
Through-hole Component Insertion: Aerospace PCB components require through-hole inserting. Because multilayered PCBs are common in this industry, it is necessary to insert through holes.
Through-hole technology allows signals to be transmitted from one side to the other.
Final Inspection: Electrical characteristics and functionality are checked. These inspections include current and voltage inspections. Inspection is also done on the signal output. This inspection is crucial considering the dangers that planes face. These flaws can be fatal.
Cleaning: It is accomplished by washing these boards with deionized water. And then The circuit boards are dried using compressed air. This prevents components from being subject to electrical defects or other problems that could hinder functionality.
Why Choose JarnisTech as Aerospace PCB Assembly Supplier ?
JarnisTech has over two decades of experience in the fabrication and assembly of many PCBs. It doesn’t matter how simple or complex your PCB requirements are, we are here to help. In addition to our state-of-the-art equipment and experienced employees, we provide the highest level of service. You can also take advantage of the extensive industry database that includes best practices for PCB and PCBA, especially when you are dealing with specialized ones like aerospace PCB assembly, please contact us we will provide professional engineering technology services for you.
We also offer quick turnaround times, which increases your time-to-market and increases your competitiveness. In addition, we can provide prototype quantities as well as large production runs, so you can rely on us to meet all of your requirements.
With years of experience, we are a preferred partner for high-quality PCB assemblies, such as those used in aerospace.
Once we receive your exact requirements and your contact information, our team will provide you with a tailored quote that is extremely cost-effective.
All electronic circuits that must meet the IPC-A-610 Class 3 and 3A standard, including those for aerospace, must be designed from the beginning with the intent of obtaining high electrical reliability, especially under challenging and unconventional operating conditions. Every electronic designer faces a challenging task in designing PCB. This includes selecting the best materials to withstand extreme environments and ensuring that they are reliable.