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High-density Interconnect (HDI)
High Density Interconnect (HDI), Printed Circuit Board High-density interconnect circuit boards, also known as HDI circuit boards, have a higher wiring density per area than the traditional printed circuit board. HDI PCBs are described as having one or several of the following: microvias (blind and buried vias), built-up laminates, and high signal performance considerations.
The technology behind printed circuit boards has evolved with new technology, which calls for smaller and more efficient products. As a result, in comparison with conventional boards, HDI boards are more compact and have fewer vias, pads, copper tracks, and spaces.
HDI boards have denser wiring, which results in lighter, compact, and lower-layer count PCBs. In some cases, an HDI Board may be able to perform the functions of multiple PCBs without having to create multiple PCBs.
This technology is the fastest growing in the PCB industry,and you can purchase HDI PCB boards from JarnisTech now. Compared to traditional circuit boards, HDI PCBs feature blind vias and buried via holes as well as high circuit density.
HDI Printed Circuit Board Development
The development of HDI printed circuit boards was motivated by the need to provide higher levels of performance and computational power in a smaller package. Industries such as telecommunications were primarily responsible for this need. In the mobile telephone industry, In order to provide smaller, more powerful mobile phones, more electronic circuitry had to be packed into smaller, denser packages. However, the trends in Integrated Circuit Technology were another key factor in the development of HDI PCBs. They were able to force people to rethink the way they built printed circuit board layouts and interconnects.
These Are Some of the Key IC Technology Trends:
● Controlling power dissipation by reducing operating voltages.
● The decreasing size of gates.
● Higher levels of gate integration (i.e. Higher number of transistors per area in a die)
● Higher operating frequencies and clock rates (faster signal rise times)
● Reduction in die size.
In packaging ICs, the trend has shifted away from low-count peripheral lead frames to surface mount technology. This allows for the placement of interconnecting Pins beneath the entire surface of the IC. The Ball Grid Array (BGA) is one such technology. It places interconnecting pins in a grid-like pattern on the underside side of an IC. The IC packages become more dense as more pins are added. This causes the spacing between the pads and circuit board traces to decrease (known as the pitch). This helps to shrink the electronics’ package size, but it also creates problems and requires changes in the manufacturing process of HDI PCBs.
Other advantages of BGAs include a lower thermal resistance between the devices and the PCB. This allows for lower operating temperatures and a higher transistor density, which helps to maintain acceptable chip operating temperatures. Grid array packaging also has the advantage of shorter interconnecting cables. The shorter leads result in lower inductance, which reduces signal distortion in high-speed circuits and improves overall performance.
The Process of Making HDI PCB
It is difficult to make an HDI PCB. To make an HDI PCB, there are many steps that you need to take. our need to have technician expertise, special equipment, as well as care processes to make an HDI PCB. Some equipment required for manufacturing HDI PCBs includes laser imaging, plugging, sequential lamination cycles and laser drills.
Laser drilling technology is an essential part of making an HDI PCB. A PCB needs to have thin pathways from and to components. This is not possible with traditional acidic methods. Using laser drilling technology, it is efficient to make HDI PCBs, and no problems will arise during their creation. As it contains a beam of light of 20 microns, it can make tiny paths in the board by cutting it through glass and metal slightly.
An HDI PCB is more complicated than a regular one. It is because the pathway in it is thinner, and the components are more. Thus, one should use a multilayered design with insulating material. The devices having an HDI PCB will function better when such a design is used. Lamination is the final step in making an HDI PCB. Through a heated roller method, the lamination is done. All the layers are to be put on top of the other before the heater roller method.
Why Choose JarnisTech to Fabrication Your HDI PCB ?
JarnisTech is a high-density interconnect manufacturer of printed circuit boards. We have been in business for over 20 years and believe quality is No1. Combine that with competitive pricing and quick responses, and overseas market development, as well as unmatched flexibility. Contact us now, you will have the perfect a HDI PCB manufacturer, we can to meet all of your HDI PCB requirements.
PCB Materials for HDI Circuit Board Fabrication
JarnisTech has many material options from top manufacturers such as Isola, Nelco, Arlon, Taconic, and Rogers. Laminate options include advanced properties such as:
● High thermal reliability
● Ultra-Low Loss
● High-Speed Digital
● RoHS Compliant
● High-quality Lead-Free Tg
Stacked Microvias or Second Generation Microvias
● This planar surface is ideal for BGAs (VA in-pad).
● Allows any layer via technology.
● Provides solid copper plate, eliminating potential solder voiding.
● Offers a thermal management solution.
● Multiple layers allow for increased routing.
● Provide Router solutions for next-generation apps.
● Enhances the current carrying capacity.
6 Types of HDI Boards
● Using Layer pairs are those with coreless construction
● Using layer pairs are those with alternate coreless constructions
● those with through vias and buried vias.
● Those with two or more HDI layers with through vias.
● From surface to surface those with through vias.
● Those with passive substrates and no electrical connection.
A PCB with any layer connect is the next technological advancement after the HDI microvia PCB. All electrical connections between individual layers consist only of laser-drilled microvias. This technology has the advantage that all layers can be interconnected. JarnisTech uses laser-drilled microvias that have been electroplated with copper to produce HDI PCBs.
Design Considerations-HDI PCBS
HDI PCBs can be produced in different ways than other types of PCBs. Now, maybe you need to know some thing about HDI PCB Design Considerations:
During the lamination process, the core of the PCB is combined with copper and pre-preg layers to make multi-layer PCBs. This is done by applying heat pressure. The required heat and pressure will vary from one board to the next. The PCB manufacturer will drill vias after the lamination phase has been completed. As opposed to other PCB types, HDI boards go through multiple laminations. This sequential lamination process prevents shifting and breaking during drilling.
Via In-pad Production Process
With via-in-pad production, vias are placed on the flat lands on your PCB by plating them, filling them with one of the various fill types, capping them, and, finally, plating them over. In most cases, via-in-pad is a 10- to 12-step process requiring specialized equipment and skilled technicians. The via-in pad is an excellent choice for HDI PCBs as it simplifies thermal management, reduces space requirements, and provides one of the fastest ways to bypass capacitors in high-frequency designs.
Via Fill Types
Via fills types should always be compatible with your application and PCB requirements. We use a variety of via-fill materials, including electrochemical plating, nonconductive epoxy, silver-filled and copper-filled. Nonconductive epoxy is the most popular via fill. Nonconductive epoxy is the most common via fill. It should be flush with the land and will sell completely, just like traditional lands. Fills should allow standard vias and microvias to be blinded, buried or drilled. Finally, they must be plated to conceal them underneath SMT lands. Multiple drill cycles are used at precise controlled depths to ensure that the drilling process goes smoothly each time. This level of control is possible only with specialized equipment, which takes a longer time to develop.
HDI PCBs are available in several layout options. The most popular are the 1-n-1 and 2-n-2 types. The 1-n-1PCB is the simplest HDI printed circuit board. It consists of a single layer of interconnected high-density layers. Each side of the core requires one sequential laminate. The 2-n-2 PCB is equipped with two HDI layers that allow microvias to be stacked or staggered across layers. Copper-filled stacks of microvia structures are typically used in complex designs. Although structures can reach very high X-n-X levels with minimal cost, they are not always possible to build up. Another important option is the any-layer HDI. This layout uses a dense HDI layout, so conductors on any layer of the PCB can freely interconnect with the laser microvia structures. These designs are found in CPU chips and GPUs in smartphones and other mobile devices.
Laser Drill Technology
In any-layer HDI designs, laser microvias are often created using laser drills. These drills can produce a laser of up to 20 microns in diameter that can easily cut through metal and glass. This creates tiny but clean holes. It is possible to create even smaller holes by using materials like uniform glass that have a low dielectric constant.
Contact Imagery and LDI
Being a top supplier of HDI printed circuit boards means pushing the boundaries. JarnisTech has the ability to deliver finer lines using cutting-edge technology in clean, safe rooms. When it comes to these delicate details, repairs aren’t possible, so they must be done right and with extreme precision the first time. Based on the equipment being checked, we alternate between contact imaging or LDI imagery. LDI is the best option for precise lines and spacing. Despite its limitations, it is able to validate even the most demanding processes and allows for smaller form factors.
HDI Cost Considerations
There are many factors that affect the price of an HDI board. These factors will help you to set a budget and ensure that your PCB order is as cost-effective as possible:
Type, Amount, Vias, or Microvias
Both the via, microvia, and through-holes that you select for your HDI PCB will have an impact on its cost. This will also affect how many of these features you require. Because they require greater precision, smaller vias are more expensive than larger ones. Adding more vias can increase the cost.
Stackup Height & Number of Layers
The type of stack-up that you require will also affect the price. It will cost more to have a 2-n-2 high-density PCB layout. If you add layers, the price will go up. The number of layers should be chosen according to the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of the project.
You may have many options for the materials. Core materials can be made from FR4, metal or fiberglass, depending on their application. In addition to ENIG, HASL, immersion tin, immersion silver, immersion gold, you can also choose from a variety of other results. ENIG is the most popular HDI because of its flatness and easy solderability.
The Number of Sequential Laminates
The number of layers and types of via structures determine the number of sequential laminations needed. While more laminations can lead to higher processing times and higher costs, they can also improve product performance and cost-effectiveness.
Staggered vs Stack
There may be cost differences between staggered and stacked setups. Stacked vias may be filled with copper while staggered microvias cannot. The project will take longer and require more material to fill the vias.
To reduce costs, you should determine the size of your pad early. The proper pad size will allow you to plan your design more efficiently and economically.
If your request is for a rush, there may be higher costs because of the additional resources needed to complete a rush order. Last-minute circumstances can sometimes occur that are out of your control. However, planning ahead can increase efficiency and reduce costs. JarnisTech provides quick turnaround and fast customer service.
Supplier of PCBs
There will be a significant impact on the price of your HDI board when you choose your partners. To ensure cost-effectiveness, you want a supplier that offers competitive pricing and can efficiently produce high-quality products. It is better to order high-quality items once and not have to replace or repair them later.
The Different Types of HDI PCB Stack-ups
1+N+1 – Printed circuit boards contain 1 build-up of high-density interconnect layers.
HDI PCB (1+N+1)
● Copper-filled via.
● This is suitable for BGAs with lower I/O counts.
● Outstanding mounting stability and reliability.
● Surface treatment and material that is qualified for Lead-free processes.
● Microvia, fine line and registration technologies capable of 0.4 mm ball pitch.
● Application: Mobile phone, UMPC. MP3 Player. PMP. GPS. Memory Card.
1+N+1 HDI PCB Structure
I+N+I (I≥2)–There are two or more layers of high-density interconnections on a printed circuit board. Different layers of microvias can be staggered or stacked.
HDI PCB (2+N+2)
● Copper-filled via.
● Capabilities for thin boards.
● Complex design increase more routing density.
● It is suitable for BGAs with a smaller ball pitch and higher I/O count.
● Signal transmission performance is improved by using lower Dk/Df materials.
● Application: Mobile phones, PDAs, UMPCs, Portable game consoles, DSCs, Camcorders.
I+BN+i (I≥2)-Includes Buried Vias
Any layer HDI – The layers of a PCB all feature high-density interconnections, which allow conductors on any layer to be freely interconnected using copper-filled stacks of microvias.
ELIC (Every Layer Interconnection)
● Excellent electrical characteristics.
● Copper-filled vias provide greater reliability.
● Every layer via structure maximizes design freedom.
● Cu bump and metal paste technologies are available for extremely thin boards.
● Application: Mobile phone, UMPC and MP3, PMP. GPS, Memory card.
HDI PCB Prototype Delivery Time and Prices
Prices for HDI PCB are affected by a variety of factors such as size, thickness, colour and surface finish are all important factors.
Sometimes, the quantity of the HDI PCB may determine its price. In these cases, manufacturers and suppliers may offer discounts to bulk buyers from China.
For a quote, the customer can send a Gerber file to us.
In a general, A simple FR4 PCB and Aluminum PCB board can take between 5-7 days to finish. The HDI PCB manufacturing process is complex and takes a long time. HDI PCB delivery takes between 8-12 working days. JarnisTech can accept expedited orders to meet customer requirements. These orders can be processed in as little as one week.
JarnisTech’ HDI PCB Capabilities
|PCB Specifications||HDI PCB Capabilities|
|PCB Layers||4 to 60 layers|
|High-Density Layers||Up to 32 layers|
|Delivery Time||1 day to 4 weeks|
|Stackup||1+N+1, 2+N+2, 3+N+3, 4+N+4|
|HDI Via||Blind via, Buried via, Staggered via, Stacked via, Skip via|
|Minimum Laser Drill Diameter||0.075mm|
|Final PCB Thickness||0.15mm|
|Minimum Trace Width/Space||Flex/rigid-flex PCBs: 1.6mil/1.6mil|
Rigid PCBs: 2.5mil/2.5mil
|Minimum Mechanical Drill Diameter||1+N+1, 2+N+2, 3+N+3, 4+N+4, 5+N5, 6+N+6, 7+N+N(with copper filling)|
|HDI PCB Production Capability||5000m² per day|
|Copper Thickness||100μm to 125μm|
|Solderability||＞95% (IPC-TM-650 2.4.14)|
|Surface finish||Selective surface finish|
HASL: SMD 40µ to 2000µ”, GND 30µ to 800µ”
ENIG: Au 1µ to 5µ”, Ni 80µ to 200µ”
Immersion tin: 0.8µm to 1.2µm
Immersion silver: 0.15µm to 0.45µm
Hard gold plating: Au 1µ to 50µ”, Ni 80µ to 200µ”
Peelable mask: 5mil
Carbon ink: 0.3mil
One-Stop HDI PCB Manufacturing In Stackups Starting At 1+N+1 up to 4+N+4
JarnisTech can manufacture 5000m2 HDI PCBs per day. We provide end-to-end HDI PCB solutions from the initial idea through high-volume production.
HDI PCB manufacturing requires advanced technical knowledge and the most up-to-date equipment to ensure exacting precision.
JarnisTech has multiple facilities in China that offer low-volume/high mix PCB manufacturing. At the same time, we also have high-tech capabilities and advanced equipment. Therefore, we can with demanding requirements for medical, defense, aerospace and commercial applications.
Disadvantage of HDI PCB
Here are some of the drawbacks and limitations of HDI PCB.
● Technologies are still in development.
● There are many ways to achieve the same technology (copper filling, drilling).
● Lower yield.
● Requires expensive equipment.
● The reliability of the plated holes is a key factor in limiting HDI PCB. Blind via is limited by its aspect ratio. Aspect ratio is calculated by dividing material thickness by hole PTH diameter.
● Plating is the main problem. The aspect ratio of blind vias is 1:8 to ensure good hole plating integrity. Advanced values are 1:12. Because of this limitation in aspect ratio, PCB manufacturers use special pre-pregs. Very thin and with the right reaction to laser drilling.
● HDI multilayers should be constructed with the right materials.
● Standard pre-pregs are made of fiberglass, which is too large challenges for laser drilling. As a result, the glass in pre-pregs alters the laser direction, causing laser via holes to be of mediocre or incorrect shape.
● For via holes it is sensitives. The role of vias during assembly is similar to that of rivets. ROHS places high thermal stress on vias. The vias are stressed by the expansion of material along the z-axis. Reducing via diameter and improving reliability is becoming more common.
What Are HDI PCB’s Advantages ?
These are the main advantages of HDI circuit boards:
Lower the Cost of PCBs
If the density of the PCB is greater than eight layers, it will be manufactured by HDI. In addition, the process will be cheaper than traditional complicated lamination.
Increase the Circuit Density
Traditional circuit boards and parts need to be interconnected through lines and via-hole conductors drawn around the QFP. These circuits must occupy space. Microvia technology hides the wiring needed for interconnection to the next level. Blind holes in the pads connect the pads to the leads at different levels. No fan-in or fan-out wiring is required. To accept additional parts, you can place some pads, such as mini-BGA and CSP small ball bonding, on the outer layer boards. This can increase the circuit board’s density. This new wiring and stacking method is used by many small, high-function wireless handset boards.
Good for the Use of Advanced Assembly Technology
Because of the size of the through hole and mechanical drilling, traditional drilling technology can’t meet the demands of small parts in thin circuits.
Array packages, CSP (Compound Chip Package) and DCA (Direct Chip Attach) are all examples of the latest high-density IC packaging technologies that designers can incorporate into microvia systems as microvia technology advances.
Higher Electrical Performance and Signal Accuracy
Micro-hole interconnects able to reduce signal reflection and crosstalk interference between circuits and provide more space for circuit board design. Because of their physical structure, micro-holes can reduce capacitance and inductance, as well as the switching noise during signal transmission.
As the micro-holes are thinner and have a 1:1 aspect ratio, the signal transmission reliability is higher than with ordinary through-holes.
Better Thermal Properties
The insulating dielectric material in HDI boards has an increased glass transition temperature (Tg), which means it has better thermal characteristics.
Radio frequency interference (RFI), electromagnetic wave interference (EMI), and electrostatic discharge (ESD) can be improved by
Circuit board designers can shorten the distance between ground layer and signal layers using microvia technology, thereby reducing radio frequency and electromagnetic wave interference; Furthermore, the number of ground wires in the circuit can be increased in order to prevent damage to the parts of the circuit from instantaneous discharges resulting from static electricity accumulation.
Improve Design Efficiency
With the microvia technology, the circuit can be placed on the inner layer. This allows for more design space and increases efficiency.
If you want to know more information about HDI PCB or HDI capabilities, please visit https://www.jarnistech.com or directly contact us by email.
HDI PCB Types
HDI PCB comes in different types.
They may differ in design, but they all serve the same purpose. The application you use will determine which type to choose. Let’s see the following types.
Flexible plastic is the main component of Flex HDI PCB. Flexible plastic allows the board to take on different shapes. This material offers many advantages over rigid boards.
You can bend and move the board easily without damaging the circuits. This board type has one drawback: design and manufacturing are expensive. They have many benefits.
These PCBs can replace the heavy wiring in advanced equipment such as satellites. These PCBs are lightweight and require very little space. They are great for this type of use. It also features multiple designs, such as multilayer or single-sided.
Rigid HDI PCB
Asides from the number of layers and sides that this HDI PCB has, it also comes in different rigidities. These boards are made of a rigid and solid substrate material like fiberglass. This material prevents HDI boards from being bent. This HDI PCB is found on most desktop towers.
Rigid-flex HDI PCB
It consists of a rigid circuit board attached to a flexible one. Depending on the application, the complexity of the design will vary.
Multilayer HDI PCB
These boards are made up of multiple layers of substrate boards separated by an insulating material. Similar to HDI PCBs that have double sides, vias and through holes can also be used for connecting the board’s electrical circuits. Because they take up less space, multilayer HDI PCBs can be very beneficia. This HDI board type is used in a variety of applications, including medical machinery, computers, handheld devices, and servers.
Q&A From HDI Manufacturing
Q: Can JarnisTech make a PCB with blind and buried vias?
A: Yes. We can make any layer blind with or without cross-buried hole connector PCB. Send your PCB design to and get a quote!
Q: When will I receive a quote?
A: You can get a quote within 24 hours, If Blind cross buried hole will take 48 hours to quote.
Q: How can you guarantee the quality?
A: JarnisTech has more than 20 years of HDI manufacturing experience. All boards will be tested 100% including flying proble, and Aoi.
Applications of HDI PCBs
The medical industry is seeing a significant impact from the HDI PCB. Because they fit into small devices such as implants, lab and imaging equipment, medical devices are often HDI. Medical equipment is essential in diagnosing and providing life support. Ex: Diagnostic, monitoring equipment and Pacemaker.
The miniaturized camera sizes allow for the observation of the inside of patients and can help to diagnose the problem. Despite the reduction in camera size, the quality of images is not diminished.. These advancements were possible thanks to HDI PCB technology.
Some men find it demoralizing to insert cameras from open ends, but they have been reduced in size with a clearer picture.
Because they are smaller, car manufacturers are attracted to smaller-sized PCBs. The integration of electronic devices into cars has been a major focus for carmakers, especially with the release of futuristic models from companies like Tesla.
Tablets and Smartphones
All smartphones are HDI PCBs equipped with ELIC (Every Layer Interconnection). HDI PCBs allow for smaller, lighter electronic devices.
HDI has become a major player in the consumer market with the Apple Watch’s launch and other wearable devices such as VR headsets. As its outstanding functionality, wearable technology is rapidly gaining attention from more and more engineers and designers
As we know, the motherboard of Gaming Consoles is also adapted to HDI PCB boards. There are many gaming consoles, including the Xbox, PlayStation, Nintendo and Wii. Each console has complex functions that allow you to play the games smoothly. HDI ensures that all functionalities are flawless and games run smoothly.
Laptops and PC
These devices, including laptops and PCs, cannot function without an HDI PCB. These devices can perform many tasks. We can use them to surf watch videos, play game and the internet ,do any digital work and much more. The HDI PCBs connect with the display and mouse. They are also responsible for recognizing keystrokes.
Digital cameras are capable of many important functions, and when they capture pictures, their functions increase further. Without a PCB, how can the process of taking a picture and changing the settings take place? An HDI circuit board is the solution to all problems with digital cameras’ functions.
Military and Aerospace
HDI can be found in military communications devices as well as other strategic equipment such as missile and defense system systems. Due to HDI boards can withstand extreme conditions and adapt to harsh environmental characteristics, they are ideal for military and aerospace applications.
HDI PCB Market Supply and Demand Analysis
Since the growth of mobile phone manufacturing is causing the demand for HDI PCB boards to increase. China is a technology-driven nation that plays a key role in the global mobile phone manufacturing industry. More than 90% of mobile phone motherboards now use HDI PCBs, thanks to Motorola’s 2002 adoption of HDI boards for mobile phones.
The growing demand for HDI PCBs cannot be met by China’s HDI PCB manufacturing capacity. The global HDI mobile board production landscape has seen major changes in recent years. Major PCB manufacturers from America and Europe, as well as the well-known AT&S and ASPOCOM mobile phone board manufacturers, continue to supply second-order HDI to Nokia. Most of the HDI production capability has been moved from Europe to Asia, including mobile phone boards. Particularly China, is now the main supplier of HDI boards.
HDI, or high-density-inter-connector, is a type or model of PCB that is reliable and efficient. Its small size allows for reduced heat transfer and improves signal integrity. It was designed to meet all consumer needs (using HDI PCBs). HDI PCBs can be found in many devices, including smartphones, computers, laptops and gaming consoles. HDI PCBs can thus be described as widely used today.
JarnisTech is An experienced, professional electronics contract manufacturer. Our core mission is to provide high-quality, high-tech PCB assembly services to our 2000+ clients. This is built on the foundations of high-tech PCB fabrication capabilities such as HDI, RF, hybrid, backplane, rigid-flex, and heavy copper PCB. We will offer the best price and highest quality for your PCB projects.