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Factors Affecting HDI PCB Production Costs

Factors Affecting HDI PCB Production Costs

HDI PCBs are a type of printed circuit board characterized by high-density circuits and microvias created through laser drilling techniques. They are widely used for fine-pitch assembly, and leading HDI PCB manufacturers like JarnisTech offer ultra HDI PCB assembly with a minimum pitch as low as 0.05mm. These advanced PCBs are essential for various applications such as IC load boards and implanted medical devices, where compactness and thinness are critical requirements.

However, it is worth noting that HDI PCBs can be relatively expensive. Many clients often approach us, as an experienced HDI and IC load board PCB manufacturer, seeking guidance on how to reduce the costs associated with HDI PCB production. In response to this common query, we have compiled some valuable suggestions to help address this concern effectively.

Key Factors Impacting HDI PCB Manufacturing Costs

High Density Interconnect (HDI) Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are an essential component of modern electronics due to their ability to support complex, high-speed designs. The cost of HDI PCB production is influenced by several factors:

Board Complexity

The complexity of the board design significantly impacts the production cost. More complex boards require more layers, vias, and other features, all of which increase the manufacturing time and cost.

Board Size and Shape

Larger boards require more materials and take longer to produce, increasing the cost. Additionally, irregular shapes may require special tooling or handling, further driving up the cost.

Materials Used

The choice of materials can greatly affect the cost. For example, using high-frequency materials such as Rogers or Teflon can significantly increase the cost compared to standard FR-4 materials.

High Frequency PCB Materials

Layer Count

More layers mean more drilling, etching, and lamination cycles. This can both increase the cost and extend the manufacturing time.

Via Types

HDI PCBs can use through vias, blind vias, or buried vias. Buried vias require more process steps, and thus, are more expensive to implement.

Surface Finish

The type of surface finish used can affect the cost. Options include HASL (Hot Air Solder Leveling), ENIG (Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold), and OSP (Organic Solderability Preservative), each with different cost implications.


Economies of scale apply to PCB production. Producing a larger number of boards at one time can significantly reduce the cost per unit.

Turnaround Time

Faster production times usually come with a premium. If you need your PCBs quickly, you can expect to pay more.

Testing Requirements

Depending on the application, different levels of testing may be required. More rigorous testing procedures increase the cost.

Certification Requirements

If your PCB needs to meet certain industry standards or certifications (like UL, RoHS, etc.), this can also increase the production cost.

Manufacturer’s Capabilities and Location

The manufacturer’s technical capabilities, experience, and location can also affect the cost. Manufacturers in regions with lower labor costs may offer cheaper prices, but there may be trade-offs in terms of quality, delivery times, or communication.

Remember, the cheapest option isn’t always the best, especially for crucial components like HDI PCBs. It’s important to consider factors like quality, reliability, and manufacturer reputation alongside cost when making your decision.

Why Are HDI PCBs Important?

HDI Rigid-flex PCB

High-Density Interconnect (HDI) Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are an integral part of modern electronics due to a number of factors:

Miniaturization: HDI PCBs offer higher component density and allow more components to be fitted on both sides of the PCB. This has made it possible to design smaller and more complex electronic devices, from smartphones to medical devices, without compromising their capabilities.

Enhanced Performance: HDI technology allows for shorter interconnection paths, which can significantly improve the signal integrity and the overall performance of the device. Moreover, it can also reduce the electromagnetic interference (EMI), which is a common issue in high-speed electronic devices.

Greater Design Flexibility: HDI PCBs provide greater design freedom. Designers can use blind and buried vias, as well as microvias, to create more complex circuits. This flexibility can lead to innovative designs and more powerful devices.

Cost Reduction: While the initial cost of designing and manufacturing HDI PCBs can be higher than conventional PCBs, they can lead to cost savings in the long run. The ability to integrate more components into a smaller area can reduce the overall material cost. Furthermore, the improved performance can reduce the need for rework and repairs, leading to cost efficiencies.

Support for Advanced Technology: HDI PCBs are crucial for advanced technologies like IoT devices, wearable technology, and high-frequency applications. These technologies require small, high-performance components, and HDI PCBs can meet these requirements.

As a result, HDI PCBs are important due to their ability to support the miniaturization of devices, improve performance, provide greater design flexibility, reduce costs, and support advanced technologies.

Final Thoughts

To achieve optimal cost efficiency for your HDI PCB, it is crucial to take into account various factors including production processes, material selection, drilling methods, and imaging techniques.

Consequently, it is advisable to engage in early consultations with your chosen PCB manufacturer during the design phase. This collaborative approach will enable you to strike the right balance between price, manufacturability, and performance based on the specific requirements of your design. By seeking their expertise and guidance from the outset, you can make informed decisions that align with your project’s goals.

Build PCB Boards

Furthermore, it is important to recognize that if building a circuit board proves challenging even with a limited number of prototypes, scaling up to large-scale production can present additional difficulties. This consideration underscores the need for thorough planning and assessment to ensure smooth manufacturing processes during production runs.

The Importance of 3D Printed PCBs in Modern Electronics Production

The Importance of 3D Printed PCBs in Modern Electronics Production

Advancements in technology have led to significant progress in the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) industry, driven by the growing demands within the electronics sector. PCBs play a pivotal role in the efficient functioning of electronic devices, making them an essential component in electronics production.

Notably, researchers have embarked on experimental endeavors to explore the potential of 3D printing in PCB manufacturing, and the outcomes have been highly promising. The utilization of 3D printed PCBs has become increasingly prevalent across the electronics industry. This article aims to delve into the domain of 3D printed PCBs, analyzing their significance and impact.

What is a 3D Print PCB?

When referring to a 3D PCB, it should be noted that it does not imply a three-dimensional circuit board. Rather, a 3D PCB is a type of circuit board manufactured using a 3D printer. In this process, the board’s circuits are printed directly onto the bare board using a 3D inkjet printer, eliminating the need for traditional copper etching techniques.

A 3D PCB employs a 3D inkjet printer equipped with an extruder head, which utilizes specialized gel or conductive materials. This printer is capable of accurately printing circuits onto a bare PCB board. The utilization of 3D printing technology in PCB manufacturing offers several advantages over conventional methods, including reduced errors and minimized waste material. The adoption of 3D PCBs has had a significant impact on the electronics manufacturing industry.

It is worth noting that 3D printing can produce both single-sided and double-sided PCBs with relative ease. Furthermore, applying a 3D printer to a flexible PCB is a straightforward process. However, printing a multilayer board presents a more complex challenge, which can be facilitated through the utilization of PCB design software.

Methods of 3D Printing PCBs

3D printing of printed circuit boards (PCBs) is a relatively new technology that allows for the quick prototyping and production of complex electronic devices. The major methods of 3D printing PCBs are as follows:

Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)

FDM is the most common method of 3D printing. It works by heating and extruding a thermoplastic filament layer by layer onto a build plate. In the case of PCBs, a conductive filament can be used to create the circuit pathways.

Though FDM is not typically used for creating commercial-grade PCBs due to its relatively low resolution, it can be useful for prototyping simple circuits and for educational purposes.

Inkjet Printing

Inkjet printing involves depositing droplets of conductive ink onto a substrate. The ink is typically composed of silver or other conductive metals. The droplets of ink are deposited in the shape of the desired circuit pattern, and once the ink is dried or cured, a conductive pathway is formed.

Inkjet printing allows for the creation of complex, high-resolution circuits, making it suitable for commercial applications. However, the inks used can be expensive, and the process requires precise control over the deposition of the ink.

Aerosol Jet Printing

Aerosol jet printing is similar to inkjet printing, but instead of depositing droplets of ink, it sprays a fine mist of conductive ink onto the substrate. This allows for the creation of very fine, high-resolution circuit pathways.

Aerosol jet printing can be used to create complex, 3D circuits on a variety of substrates, making it a versatile method for 3D printing PCBs.

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)

SLS involves using a high-power laser to fuse small particles of plastic, metal, ceramic, or glass powders into a mass that has the desired 3-dimensional shape. SLS can be used to create PCBs by using a conductive powder to form the circuit pathways.

SLS allows for the creation of complex, high-resolution circuits, and it can be used with a variety of materials. However, it requires a high-power laser and precise control over the sintering process.

Direct Laser Writing (DLW)

PCB Direct Laser Writing

DLW is a method that uses a focused laser beam to pattern a photosensitive material. The laser beam alters the properties of the material, creating conductive pathways. This method can be used to create high-resolution, complex circuits.

DLW is a relatively slow process, but it allows for a high degree of control over the circuit design, making it suitable for creating complex, high-performance circuits.

It’s important to note that while 3D printed PCBs have many advantages, such as rapid prototyping and the ability to create complex circuits, they currently do not match the performance and reliability of traditional PCBs. However, as 3D printing technology continues to advance, the gap is likely to narrow.

Benefits and Challenges of PCB 3D Printing

3D printing technology has significantly transformed many industries, and the electronics sector is no exception. Printed circuit board (PCB) 3D printing is one of the emerging technologies that has the potential to revolutionize the way we design and manufacture electronic devices. This technology involves the use of additive manufacturing to create a PCB layer by layer.

Let’s look at both the benefits and challenges of 3D-printed PCBs:


Rapid Prototyping: One of the most significant advantages of PCB 3D printing is the ability to quickly create prototypes. Designers can print a circuit board, test it, modify the design, and reprint it in a short period, accelerating the development process.

Complex Designs: Traditional manufacturing methods can limit the complexity of the PCBs. 3D printing allows for more intricate designs, including multi-layer PCBs with integrated components.

Cost-Effective for Small Runs: Traditional PCB manufacturing involves high setup costs, making it expensive for small production runs. However, 3D printing can be cost-effective for producing small quantities.

Reduced Waste: 3D printing is an additive process, where material is added layer by layer, which can reduce waste compared to traditional subtractive manufacturing methods.

Customization: 3D printing allows for high levels of customization without significantly increasing costs. This can be beneficial for making customized electronics or devices for specific applications.


Limited Materials: Currently, there are limitations on the types of materials that can be used for 3D printing PCBs. Typical 3D printers use thermoplastics, which may not have the necessary electrical properties for some applications.

Resolution and Precision: While 3D printing technology continues to improve, traditional manufacturing methods can often provide higher resolution and precision. This can be a significant challenge for PCBs, which often require precise, miniaturized components.

Speed: 3D printing is generally slower than traditional manufacturing methods, especially for large quantities. This makes it less suitable for mass production.

Durability and Quality: While 3D printed PCBs are suitable for prototyping, there may be concerns about their durability and quality for long-term use or in harsh environments.

Regulatory Challenges: As with any new technology, there can be regulatory challenges. Standards and regulations for 3D printed electronics are still in development, which could slow adoption.

In conclusion, while PCB 3D printing offers many advantages like rapid prototyping, complex designs, and cost-effectiveness for small runs, it also faces challenges such as limited materials, lower precision, slower speed, and concerns about durability and quality. Despite these challenges, as the technology continues to evolve, it is likely to become an increasingly important tool in electronics design and manufacturing.

Applications of 3D Printed Circuit Boards

3D printed circuit boards (PCBs) offer several unique advantages and applications compared to traditional PCB manufacturing methods. Here are some of the applications of 3D printed circuit boards:

3D Printed Circuit Boards

Rapid Prototyping: 3D printed PCBs allow for rapid prototyping of electronic circuits. Design iterations can be quickly implemented and tested, reducing the time and cost involved in developing new electronic devices.

Custom Electronics: 3D printing enables the creation of custom-shaped PCBs that can fit into unconventional or compact spaces. This is particularly useful in devices with complex geometries or wearable electronics where space is limited.

Embedding Components: With 3D printed PCBs, components can be directly integrated into the printed structure, eliminating the need for additional assembly steps. This enables the creation of highly integrated devices with reduced size and weight.

Lightweight Electronics: By utilizing additive manufacturing techniques, 3D printed PCBs can be designed with lightweight structures, which is beneficial in applications such as drones, satellites, and aerospace systems, where weight reduction is critical.

Antenna Integration: 3D printed PCBs can incorporate antennas directly into the structure. This allows for the creation of compact and customized antennas that are well-suited for wireless communication devices.

Low-Volume Production: For low-volume production runs, 3D printing can be a cost-effective alternative to traditional PCB manufacturing methods. It eliminates the need for expensive tooling and setup, making it suitable for small-scale production or customized electronic devices.

Education and Research: 3D printed PCBs are valuable tools for educational institutions and research laboratories. They provide a hands-on learning experience for students, allowing them to design and fabricate functional circuits more easily.

IoT Devices: Internet of Things (IoT) devices often require compact and customized electronics. 3D printed PCBs can be used to create IoT devices with integrated sensors, microcontrollers, and wireless communication modules.

Flexible Electronics: Some 3D printing technologies allow for the creation of flexible PCBs. This flexibility is advantageous in applications where the circuit needs to conform to curved surfaces or undergo bending and stretching, such as wearable electronics or medical devices.

Repair and Replacement: 3D printed PCBs can be used to create replacement parts for legacy systems or obsolete components. This can extend the operational lifespan of older equipment that is no longer supported by traditional manufacturing methods.

It’s worth noting that while 3D printed PCBs offer several advantages, they also have limitations. The level of complexity and density achievable with 3D printed PCBs may be lower compared to traditional manufacturing methods. Additionally, the electrical and thermal properties of the printed materials may differ from those of conventional PCB materials, which can impact performance and reliability.

How to Choose the Optimal 3D Printing Process for PCBs?

Selecting the appropriate 3D printing process for your PCBs requires careful consideration of various factors. To make an informed decision, follow these steps:

1. Understand your requirements: Begin by clearly defining your project’s specific requirements. Consider factors such as the complexity of the circuit design, desired conductivity, mechanical strength, weight limitations, cost constraints, and any other relevant specifications.

2. Research available processes: Thoroughly investigate the 3D printing processes commonly used for PCB manufacturing, such as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), Multi Jet Fusion (MJF), or lamination methods. Understand the principles behind each process, their strengths, limitations, and the materials they are compatible with.

3. Evaluate material properties: Assess the conductivity, thermal and electrical properties, and mechanical strength of the materials compatible with each printing process. Compare these properties against your project requirements to ensure they align with the intended application of the PCB.

4. Consider design complexity: Determine the complexity of your circuit design. Some 3D printing processes may be better suited for intricate and densely packed designs, while others may struggle with fine details or multiple layers. Evaluate the capabilities of each process in relation to your design complexity.

5. Review cost considerations: Examine the cost implications associated with each 3D printing process. Evaluate not only the initial investment required for the printer but also the recurring expenses for materials, maintenance, and post-processing. Consider the long-term cost-effectiveness of each process for your specific production volumes.

6. Seek expert advice: Consult with experts or professionals experienced in 3D printing and PCB manufacturing. They can provide valuable insights and recommendations based on their knowledge and expertise, helping you make an informed decision.

7. Test and iterate: Before committing to mass production, consider prototyping and testing your PCB designs using different 3D printing processes. This hands-on experimentation will allow you to evaluate the quality, performance, and compatibility of each process with your specific requirements.

By carefully considering these steps and thoroughly researching the available options, you can confidently choose the most suitable 3D printing process for your PCB manufacturing needs. Remember to prioritize the alignment of material properties, design complexity, cost considerations, and expert advice to ensure successful outcomes.

What Are The Different Between PCB Manufacturing and 3D Printing PCB?

PCB manufacturing and 3D printing PCB are two distinct approaches to producing printed circuit boards, each with its own characteristics and processes. Here are the key differences between them:

Manufacturing Techniques

PCB Manufacturing: Traditional PCB manufacturing involves a subtractive process. It starts with a copper-clad substrate, and various steps such as etching, drilling, and plating are employed to create the desired circuit pattern.

3D Printing PCB: 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, builds PCBs layer by layer. It uses specialized 3D printers that deposit materials, such as conductive inks or resins, to create the circuitry and components in a three-dimensional manner.

Design Flexibility

3D Printed Rigid Flex PCB

PCB Manufacturing: Traditional manufacturing techniques offer a high level of design flexibility. Complex circuitry, multiple layers, and various components can be easily accommodated.

3D Printing PCB: 3D printing enables unique design possibilities, such as embedding components within the PCB, creating unconventional shapes, and integrating intricate geometries. This allows for greater design freedom but may have limitations in terms of electrical performance and material selection.

Prototyping and Customization

PCB Manufacturing: Traditional PCB manufacturing is well-suited for mass production but can be time-consuming and costly for prototyping or small-scale customization.

3D Printing PCB: 3D printing excels in rapid prototyping and low-volume customization. It enables quicker design iterations, reduces setup costs, and facilitates on-demand production of customized PCBs.

Material Selection

PCB Manufacturing: Traditional PCB manufacturing primarily uses rigid materials, such as FR-4, which offer good electrical performance and durability.

3D Printing PCB: 3D printing allows for a wider range of material options, including conductive inks, flexible substrates, and even composite materials. However, the electrical properties and mechanical strength of these materials may vary compared to those used in traditional PCBs.

Production Scale

PCB Manufacturing: Traditional PCB manufacturing processes are highly scalable, making them suitable for large-scale production.

3D Printing PCB: 3D printing is more commonly used for smaller-scale production, prototyping, and customized applications. Scaling up 3D printing for mass production can be challenging due to limitations in speed and material compatibility.

It’s important to note that both approaches have their strengths and are often used in conjunction with each other. PCB manufacturing is well-established and widely adopted, offering reliability and efficiency for large-scale production. 3D printing PCB, on the other hand, is favored for its design flexibility, rapid prototyping capabilities, and customization options.

Future of 3D Printed Circuit Boards

The future of 3D printed circuit boards (PCBs) holds immense potential for the electronics manufacturing industry. Here are some key aspects that shape the future of 3D printed PCBs:

Advancements in Materials: Ongoing research and development efforts are focused on expanding the range of materials suitable for 3D printing PCBs. This includes the development of conductive inks, flexible substrates, and multi-functional materials that offer enhanced electrical and mechanical properties. The availability of a wider selection of materials will enable the production of more diverse and complex PCB designs.

Improved Printing Technologies: 3D printing technologies continue to evolve, becoming more precise, efficient, and capable of producing intricate PCB structures. Advancements in printing techniques, such as higher resolution and finer nozzle sizes, will enable the creation of smaller components and finer circuit traces. Enhanced printing technologies will facilitate the production of complex multilayer boards with improved reliability and performance.

Integration of Electronics and Structures: 3D printing allows for the seamless integration of electronic components within the physical structure of a product. This opens up new possibilities for embedding sensors, antennas, and other circuitry directly into objects, enabling the creation of smart and connected devices. This integration of electronics and structures can lead to innovative applications in fields like healthcare, automotive, aerospace, and IoT.

Design Freedom and Customization: 3D printing offers unparalleled design freedom, enabling the creation of highly customized PCBs tailored to specific applications. Designers can optimize the circuit layout, shape, and orientation to maximize performance and functionality. This customization potential allows for rapid prototyping, iterative design improvements, and the production of small-batch or on-demand PCBs, reducing time-to-market and overall costs.

Sustainability and Waste Reduction: 3D printing can contribute to sustainable manufacturing practices by minimizing material waste compared to traditional subtractive manufacturing methods. With precise material deposition, only the required amount of material is used, reducing scrap. Additionally, advancements in recyclable and eco-friendly materials for 3D printing contribute to a more sustainable PCB manufacturing process.

Integration with AI and Automation: The integration of 3D printing with artificial intelligence (AI) and automation technologies holds promise for streamlining the PCB manufacturing process. AI algorithms can optimize designs for additive manufacturing, enhance quality control, and automate post-processing tasks. This integration will lead to increased efficiency, productivity, and scalability in 3D printed PCB production.

3D Printed Immersion Gold PCB

Overall, the future of 3D printed PCBs is poised for significant advancements in materials, printing technologies, design capabilities, sustainability, and automation. These developments will revolutionize the electronics manufacturing landscape, enabling the production of highly customized, efficient, and integrated PCBs for a wide range of applications.


The advent of 3D printed circuit boards is revolutionizing the landscape of electronics design and production. By harnessing the capabilities of 3D printing technology, developers now have the ability to fabricate circuit boards in virtually any desired shape. This newfound flexibility fosters a heightened level of creativity and innovation within the electronics industry.

To explore further details about the potential of 3D printed circuit boards, we invite you to get in touch with Circuits Central. Our knowledgeable team is available to provide comprehensive information and address any inquiries you may have. Please feel free to reach out to us at 0086-0755-23034656 or by contacting us through our website. We look forward to assisting you in unlocking the possibilities offered by 3D printed circuit boards.

4 Ways to Make PCB Prototype for Your Exact Requirements

4 Ways to Make PCB Prototype for Your Exact Requirements

Engineers have successfully integrated PCB prototyping into various design processes to assess the functionality of PCB-based products. This prototyping system proves particularly advantageous in scenarios where post-production failures result in costly rework and redesign.

In the realm of industrial design, the creation of new PCB inventions represents valuable intellectual property rights, necessitating careful consideration throughout the entire design process. Understanding user preferences and identifying the essential elements for a product’s success are crucial prerequisites. Consequently, initiating PCB prototype design is of utmost importance.

PCB Prototypes Definition

To effectively prototype an idea, it is essential to comprehend the true essence of prototypes. A prototype serves as a preliminary model or representation of a product, illustrating its key features and functionalities. Through the process of prototyping, designers can evaluate and refine their concepts, thereby minimizing potential flaws or shortcomings before proceeding to final production.

When to commence the prototype design phase depends on various factors. Ideally, it is prudent to initiate the prototyping process as early as possible in the overall product development timeline. By doing so, designers can promptly validate their ideas, identify design challenges, and make necessary modifications to enhance the product’s overall performance.

To achieve successful PCB prototyping, it is crucial to adopt the best practices available. One effective method involves leveraging modern technological advancements in PCB fabrication techniques, such as computer-aided design (CAD) software and 3D printing. These tools enable engineers to create accurate and functional prototypes with relative ease. Additionally, collaborating with experienced PCB manufacturers and utilizing their expertise can significantly contribute to the success of the prototyping process.

In conclusion, as PCB makers, it is essential to provide reliable PCB prototyping services. Recognizing the significance of prototypes and initiating their design early in the development process are vital steps towards achieving a successful end product. By embracing innovative approaches and collaborating with knowledgeable manufacturers, designers can ensure that their PCB-based products meet the desired functionalities and fulfill users’ expectations.

Creating a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) prototype that meets your exact requirements can be a complex task. Below are 4 ways or methods that can help you in creating a prototype that fulfills your criteria.

1. Handmade PCBs:

Handmade PCBs involve manual drawing of the circuit and then etching it onto a copper-clad board. This method is primarily used for simple, single-layered PCBs.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Handmade PCBs

Advantages of Handmade PCBs

Cost-Effective: Handmade PCBs can be a more affordable option compared to professionally manufactured PCBs, especially for low-volume or prototype projects. The materials and tools required for hand assembly are generally less expensive.

Flexibility and Customization: Handmade PCBs offer greater flexibility and customization options. Designers can easily make changes to the layout or components during the assembly process, allowing for quick iterations and modifications.

Rapid Prototyping: Hand assembly enables rapid prototyping since there is no need to wait for manufacturing lead times. Designers can quickly create and test PCB designs, accelerating the product development cycle.

Small-Scale Production: Handmade PCBs are suitable for small-scale production runs, where the quantities are relatively low. It can be more efficient and cost-effective to assemble a limited number of PCBs by hand rather than investing in expensive automated production equipment.

Disadvantages of Handmade PCBs

Time-Consuming: Hand assembly is a labor-intensive process and can be time-consuming, especially for complex designs or larger quantities. Soldering each component and ensuring proper connections can take a significant amount of time.

Handmade PCBs

Skill and Expertise Required: Hand assembly requires skilled technicians with expertise in PCB assembly techniques. It takes experience and precision to ensure proper soldering, component placement, and electrical connections. Inadequate skills can lead to errors, faulty connections, and potential failures.

Limited Precision: Handmade PCBs may have limitations in terms of precision and accuracy compared to professionally manufactured PCBs. The alignment of components and solder joints may not be as exact, potentially affecting the overall performance and reliability of the PCB.

Reproducibility and Consistency: Hand assembly may result in variations between individual PCBs due to human error or inconsistencies in component placement and soldering. Achieving high reproducibility and consistency across multiple units can be challenging.

Scalability: Handmade PCBs are not suitable for large-scale production due to the limitations in terms of time, labor, and consistency. As the production volume increases, it becomes more efficient and cost-effective to switch to automated manufacturing processes.

It is important to consider these advantages and disadvantages when deciding whether to opt for handmade PCBs or professional manufacturing services, depending on the specific requirements, budget, and production scale of the project.

2. Breadboard Prototype:

Breadboards are great for testing circuit designs before moving to PCB prototyping. You can easily plug components into the breadboard and rearrange them as needed.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Breadboard Prototype

Breadboard prototyping is a popular method for quickly building and testing electronic circuits. While it offers several advantages, it also has certain limitations. Let’s explore the advantages and disadvantages of breadboard prototypes:

Advantages of Breadboard Prototypes:

Ease of Use: Breadboards are user-friendly and require no soldering. Components can be easily inserted and removed, allowing for quick circuit modifications and experimentation.

Rapid Prototyping: Breadboards facilitate rapid circuit prototyping since components can be easily connected and rearranged without the need for specialized tools or equipment.

Reusability: Components on a breadboard can be reused multiple times, making breadboards a cost-effective option for iterative design and testing.

Learning and Education: Breadboard prototyping is widely used for educational purposes, as it helps students grasp fundamental concepts of circuit design and enables hands-on learning experiences.

Visual Representation: Breadboards provide a clear visual representation of the circuit layout, making it easier to understand and troubleshoot the circuit.

Disadvantages of Breadboard Prototypes

Limited Frequency Response: Breadboards are not suitable for high-frequency applications due to the parasitic capacitance and inductance introduced by the breadboard connections. This can result in signal degradation and inaccurate performance representation.

Signal Integrity Issues: Breadboards may introduce unwanted noise and signal crosstalk due to the loose connections and non-optimized circuit layout. This can affect the accuracy and reliability of circuit testing.

Lack of Stability: Components and wires on a breadboard can become loose or disconnected with movement or vibration, leading to intermittent connections and unreliable results.

Space Constraints: Breadboards have limited space for larger or complex circuits, making it challenging to prototype circuits with numerous components or dense layouts.

Unsuitability for High-Current or High-Voltage Applications: Breadboards are not designed to handle high-current or high-voltage circuits. The contacts and wiring may not be able to support the current or voltage levels required, leading to potential safety hazards or circuit damage.

Inaccurate Component Characteristics: Breadboards may not accurately represent the characteristics of components, such as parasitic capacitance or inductance, which can affect circuit behavior. This can be a concern when precise component values are critical to circuit performance.

Breadboard Prototype

It’s important to consider these advantages and disadvantages when deciding whether to use a breadboard prototype. For more complex or high-frequency applications, it may be necessary to transition to more advanced prototyping methods, such as printed circuit boards (PCBs) or simulation software, to overcome the limitations of breadboard prototyping.

3. PCB Milling:

PCB milling machines can carve copper-clad boards to create your desired PCB design. This method is excellent for producing prototypes rapidly but requires expensive equipment.

Advantages of PCB Milling:

Rapid Prototyping: PCB milling allows for quick and efficient prototyping of printed circuit boards. Design iterations can be easily implemented and tested, reducing the time and cost associated with traditional manufacturing methods.

Design Flexibility: PCB milling offers greater design flexibility compared to etching methods. It enables the creation of complex and intricate PCB designs, including fine traces, small drill holes, and intricate shapes that may be challenging to achieve through etching.

Single-Sided and Double-Sided PCBs: PCB milling is suitable for both single-sided and double-sided PCBs. It allows for precise milling of traces, vias, and through-holes on both sides of the board, enabling the creation of more compact and densely populated circuits.

Customization and Prototyping: PCB milling allows for easy customization and rapid prototyping. Designers can quickly modify the PCB layout, add or remove components, and make adjustments to accommodate specific requirements or design changes.

Lower Cost: PCB milling can be a cost-effective option for small production runs or prototyping projects. It eliminates the need for costly photolithography equipment and chemical etching processes, reducing overall manufacturing expenses.

Disadvantages of PCB Milling

Equipment Cost: PCB milling requires specialized milling machines or CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machines, which can be expensive to acquire and maintain. This can be a barrier to entry for individuals or small-scale operations.

Time-Consuming: PCB milling can be a time-consuming process, especially for complex designs or larger PCBs. The milling process is typically slower compared to other manufacturing methods, which can result in longer production times.

Limited Resolution: The resolution of PCB milling is limited by the milling machine’s precision and the size of the milling bits used. Achieving very fine traces or tight spacing between components may be challenging, particularly for intricate designs.

Substrate Compatibility: PCB milling is most suitable for rigid substrates such as FR4. It may not be as effective for flexible or specialized substrates that require different manufacturing techniques.

Surface Finish: The surface finish of milled PCBs may not be as smooth or uniform compared to other manufacturing methods. Additional post-processing steps, such as sanding or coating, may be necessary to achieve the desired surface finish.

FR4 PCB Circuit Board Milling

When considering the use of PCB milling, it is important to assess the specific requirements of the project, including design complexity, production volume, budget, and time constraints. PCB milling can offer significant advantages for rapid prototyping and small-scale production, but it may not be the most suitable option for every application.

4. 3D Printing:

While still somewhat experimental, 3D printing can be used to create PCBs by depositing conductive material in specific patterns.

Advantages and Disadvantages of 3D Printing

Advantages of 3D Printing:

Design Freedom: 3D printing allows for intricate and complex designs that are difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional manufacturing methods. It enables designers to create customized, unique shapes and geometries without the limitations of traditional manufacturing techniques.

Rapid Prototyping: 3D printing enables fast and cost-effective prototyping by reducing the time and expense associated with traditional prototyping methods. Design iterations can be quickly produced and tested, accelerating the product development cycle.

Reduced Waste: Traditional manufacturing processes often generate significant material waste. In contrast, 3D printing is an additive manufacturing method that adds material only where needed, minimizing waste generation and promoting sustainability.

Customization and Personalization: 3D printing allows for easy customization and personalization of products, catering to individual preferences or specific requirements. It enables the production of one-off or low-volume items tailored to the needs of the end-user.

Complex Assemblies: With 3D printing, complex assemblies can be fabricated as a single, integrated component, reducing the need for multiple parts and assembly processes. This simplifies manufacturing, reduces costs, and improves the overall structural integrity of the final product.

Disadvantages of 3D Printing

Limited Material Choices: Although the range of available materials for 3D printing is expanding, it still lags behind the wide variety of materials available for traditional manufacturing methods. Certain specialized or high-performance materials may not be readily available for 3D printing.

Production Speed: 3D printing can be relatively slow compared to traditional manufacturing methods, especially when producing larger or more complex objects. The layer-by-layer additive process inherent in 3D printing can result in longer production times.

Surface Finish and Quality: The surface finish and quality of 3D-printed objects may not match the level achieved with traditional manufacturing techniques. Layers or visible seams may be present, requiring additional post-processing steps to achieve the desired aesthetic or functional properties.

Size Limitations: Most 3D printers have size limitations, which can restrict the maximum dimensions of the objects that can be printed. Large-scale or oversized parts may require specialized or industrial-grade 3D printers, which can be more expensive.

Cost: While 3D printing can be cost-effective for prototyping and low-volume production, it may not be as cost-efficient as traditional manufacturing methods for high-volume production runs. The cost of materials, equipment, and maintenance can be higher for 3D printing, especially when producing large quantities.

3D Printed Circuit Board

Understanding these advantages and disadvantages is crucial when considering the adoption of 3D printing for specific applications. It is important to evaluate factors such as design requirements, production volume, material compatibility, and cost considerations to determine whether 3D printing is the most suitable manufacturing method for a given project.

Next Steps After PCB Prototypes Finish

Ensure the PCB Prototype Function is Normal

Conducting thorough functional testing of the PCB prototype is a crucial step towards achieving a successful finished product. This testing process aids in identifying any flaws or faults in the production process or PCB components, ensuring the overall integrity of the final product. At JarnisTech, we offer a range of comprehensive PCB prototype tests designed to assess the functionality and performance of prototypes.

Functional testing serves as a vital assessment method to verify that the PCB prototype operates as intended. By subjecting the prototype to various test scenarios and stimuli, we can evaluate its behavior and ensure that it meets the desired specifications and requirements. This testing process helps uncover any potential design or manufacturing issues, allowing for necessary adjustments and refinements before moving forward.

In-circuit testing is another essential test that we employ to assess the functionality of the PCB prototype. This test involves examining individual components and their connections to identify any defects or faults in the circuitry. By analyzing the electrical characteristics and behavior of each component, we can pinpoint any anomalies that may affect the overall performance of the prototype.

Boundary scan testing is a valuable technique used to evaluate the interconnectivity and functionality of integrated circuits (ICs) on the PCB. It involves scanning and controlling the input and output pins of the ICs, allowing us to verify their proper operation and identify any potential issues related to their connectivity or functionality.

To ensure a high level of quality, we also employ manufacturing defects analyzers during the testing process. These analyzers enable us to detect and diagnose common manufacturing defects such as short circuits, open circuits, and soldering issues. By meticulously inspecting the prototype using advanced analytical tools, we can rectify any manufacturing flaws and enhance the overall reliability of the final product.

At JarnisTech, we understand the significance of comprehensive PCB prototype testing. By employing functional tests, in-circuit tests, boundary scans, and manufacturing defects analyzers, we can confidently assess the functionality and integrity of your prototypes. Our commitment to delivering exceptional quality and performance ensures that your PCB projects are thoroughly tested and optimized for success.


Ensuring the reliability, affordability, and customized design of your PCB is crucial, regardless of its intended purpose for consumers. It is imperative to meticulously consider your PCB business plan and meticulously craft your PCB products to meet your specific requirements.

To achieve these goals, it is essential to collaborate with a top-notch PCB maker who can bring your vision to life. At JarnisTech, we offer unparalleled quality service and cutting-edge technology, catering to the needs of both PCB novices and industry professionals. With our expertise and dedication to excellence, we provide a comprehensive range of services to fulfill your PCB manufacturing needs.

PCB Production

By entrusting your PCB production to JarnisTech, you can be confident in receiving outstanding results. Our team is committed to delivering reliable and high-quality PCBs that meet stringent industry standards. From the initial design phase to the final product, we pay meticulous attention to every detail, ensuring that your PCBs are tailored to your precise specifications.

Whether you are a newcomer to PCB manufacturing or an experienced professional, JarnisTech is equipped to address your unique requirements. We offer a seamless experience, providing guidance and support throughout the entire process. Our advanced technology and state-of-the-art facilities enable us to deliver cost-effective solutions without compromising on quality.

Don’t settle for anything less than the best when it comes to your PCB needs. Contact JarnisTech today and experience the synergy of exceptional service and cutting-edge technology. Let us collaborate to transform your ideas into reality and propel your PCB projects to success.

Selecting PCB Laminate Materials: A Comprehensive Overview

Selecting PCB Laminate Materials: A Comprehensive Overview

Welcome to our comprehensive guide, where we provide valuable insights into selecting the ideal material for your PCB. As a leading PCB manufacturer, we understand the importance of choosing the right PCB laminate material. In this guide, we will meticulously explore the diverse range of PCB laminate materials currently available in the market.

Whether you are a seasoned engineer or a beginner, we invite you to delve into the world of PCB laminates and expand your knowledge in this crucial aspect of PCB fabrication.

What is Laminate in PCB?

In the context of PCB (Printed Circuit Board) manufacturing, a laminate refers to the base material used to construct the PCB. It is a composite material composed of multiple layers, typically consisting of a substrate and a copper foil layer. The laminate serves as the foundation for the PCB, providing mechanical support and electrical insulation between the different circuit layers.

The substrate material in the laminate, often made of fiberglass-reinforced epoxy resin (FR-4), provides structural integrity and stability to the PCB. It is a non-conductive material that acts as an insulator, preventing electrical shorts between the copper layers.

The copper foil layer, bonded to the substrate, forms the conductive pathways and traces on the PCB. It allows for the flow of electrical signals throughout the board, connecting various components and circuitry.

Laminates can vary in thickness, dielectric constant, and other properties, depending on the specific requirements of the PCB design and its intended application. Different types of laminates offer distinct characteristics, such as high-frequency performance, thermal conductivity, or flexibility, catering to a wide range of PCB design needs.

Overall, the laminate is a critical component in PCB fabrication, providing the necessary structural integrity, electrical insulation, and conductive pathways required for the proper functioning of the circuit board.

PCB Laminate Materials for PCB Manufacturing

PCB (Printed Circuit Board) laminate materials are essential in the manufacturing of PCBs. They provide the mechanical base and electrical interconnection for the components of the electronic devices. The choice of laminate material affects the performance, reliability, and cost of the final product. Here are some of the most common PCB laminate materials:


This is the most widely used material in PCB manufacturing. FR-4 is a composite material composed of woven fiberglass cloth with an epoxy resin binder. The “FR” stands for “flame retardant”. It offers a good balance of electrical properties, mechanical strength, cost, and performance.

High-Temperature Laminates (e.g., Polyimide)

These materials are used for applications requiring high operating temperatures, such as in aerospace and automotive industries. Polyimide laminates are known for their thermal stability, good chemical resistance, and excellent mechanical properties.

PTFE (Teflon)

This is used for high-frequency applications due to its low dielectric constant and low signal loss characteristics. However, it’s more difficult to work with and is more expensive than FR-4.

CEM (Composite Epoxy Material)

CEM materials are similar to FR-4 but have a mixture of woven glass and non-woven glass fibers. Common types include CEM-1 and CEM-3. They are less expensive and have slightly different electrical properties.


BT-Epoxy is a thermoplastic that has lower moisture absorption and better heat resistance than FR-4. It’s often used for IC substrates.

Aluminum (Metal Core PCBs)

Aluminum-backed PCBs are used for high power applications and LED lights where heat dissipation is a concern. The aluminum is used as a heat sink to help dissipate heat away from the circuit.

Rogers Material

A brand of high-frequency laminate materials. They are used when FR-4’s electrical, thermal, or mechanical performances aren’t sufficient.

When choosing a laminate material, factors such as operating temperature, required electrical properties (like dielectric constant and loss tangent), mechanical strength, cost, and the specific requirements of the final application should be considered. The choice of laminate can significantly influence the performance and reliability of the final product.

Considerations Selecting Printed Circuit Board laminates Material

When it comes to selecting the right laminate material for printed circuit boards (PCBs), there are several important considerations to keep in mind. These considerations include:

Electrical Performance: Evaluate the electrical properties of the laminate, such as dielectric constant, loss tangent, and impedance control. The chosen material should provide the required electrical performance for your circuit design.

Thermal Management: Consider the thermal properties of the laminate, including thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). These properties are crucial for effective heat dissipation and preventing thermal stress on components.

Mechanical Strength: Assess the mechanical strength and rigidity of the laminate material. It should be able to withstand the mechanical stresses encountered during PCB fabrication, assembly, and operation.

Dimensional Stability: Look for laminates with low moisture absorption and CTE to ensure dimensional stability over a wide range of environmental conditions. This helps prevent warping or distortion of the PCB.

Chemical Resistance: Consider the laminate’s resistance to chemicals, solvents, and other substances it may come into contact with during its lifespan. This is particularly important in harsh or corrosive environments.

Fabrication Compatibility: Ensure that the chosen laminate material is compatible with the manufacturing processes involved in PCB fabrication, such as etching, drilling, and soldering.

Cost-Effectiveness: Evaluate the cost of the laminate material and ensure it aligns with your budget while meeting the required performance criteria.

Industry Standards and Certifications: Verify that the laminate material complies with industry standards and certifications. This ensures reliability, safety, and regulatory compliance for your PCB.

Application-Specific Requirements: Consider any specific requirements of your application, such as high-frequency performance, impedance control, or specialized environmental conditions. Choose a laminate material that can meet these unique needs.

Rigid-flex PCB Laminates Boards

By carefully considering these factors, you can select a PCB laminate material that meets the electrical, thermal, mechanical, and environmental requirements of your specific application. This ensures optimal performance, reliability, and longevity of your printed circuit boards.

Difference Between Laminates and Prepregs

Laminates and prepregs are two distinct components used in the construction of printed circuit boards (PCBs). Although they are related, there are differences between the two:

Laminates: Laminates are composite materials consisting of multiple layers. They typically comprise a core substrate material, such as fiberglass-reinforced epoxy resin (FR-4), with a copper foil bonded to one or both sides. Laminates provide the structural foundation of the PCB and contribute to its mechanical strength and rigidity. They are available in various thicknesses and offer different electrical and thermal properties.

Prepregs: Prepregs, short for pre-impregnated materials, are also composite materials used in PCB manufacturing. Prepregs consist of a reinforcement material, such as fiberglass, impregnated with a resin, typically epoxy. Unlike laminates, prepregs do not have a copper foil layer bonded to them. Instead, they are used to build up the internal layers of a multilayer PCB. Prepregs are placed between copper layers or cores and are then subjected to heat and pressure during the lamination process. The heat causes the resin to flow and bond the layers together, creating a solid PCB structure.

In summary, laminates form the base material of the PCB, providing mechanical support and electrical insulation, while prepregs are used to create the internal layers of multilayer PCBs, serving as the adhesive material that bonds the layers together during the lamination process. Both laminates and prepregs are essential components in PCB fabrication, with each playing a specific role in the construction of the final PCB structure.

Importance of laminates in PCB fabrication

The utilization of laminates in PCB manufacturing is driven by several crucial factors that contribute to the overall success of the fabrication process. These key traits include enhanced impedance control, low moisture absorption, improved thermal management, and consistent performance in dynamic thermal reactions. As the electronic industry continues to evolve through discoveries and innovations, high-frequency laminates have emerged as a fundamental element for the advancement of PCB technologies.

JarnisTech excels in providing professional PCB layout and fabrication services, leveraging our skilled team of researchers and technical experts. We have developed effective lamination solutions tailored to your specific PCB projects. Our expertise encompasses a wide range of capabilities, including high-frequency laminates, achieving tighter hole-to-hole pitch, implementing exotic via structures, accommodating multiple lamination cycles, ensuring lead-free or halogen-free solder assembly with strict environmental considerations, and supporting high operating temperatures. These highlights demonstrate our commitment to incorporating robust laminate technologies.

To address any inquiries or request a quote, please feel free to reach out to us via email at [email protected] or by phone at 0086-0755-23034656. We are dedicated to providing solutions and assisting you in achieving your PCB objectives.

Benefits of Choosing a Reliable PCB Laminate Manufacturer

The selection of a dependable PCB laminate manufacturer holds paramount importance in guaranteeing the quality, reliability, and performance of your electronic devices. Here are several benefits associated with choosing a reliable PCB laminate manufacturer:

High-Quality Materials: A reliable manufacturer utilizes top-notch materials that ensure the durability and reliability of your PCBs. These materials exhibit resistance to heat, moisture, and other environmental factors that could potentially impact the performance of your electronic devices. By employing high-quality materials, manufacturers extend the lifespan of your PCBs, minimizing the need for frequent repairs or replacements.

Consistent Quality: A reputable PCB laminate manufacturer adheres to stringent quality control processes, ensuring that every PCB meets required standards. Utilizing advanced testing equipment, they meticulously identify and rectify any defects or issues in the PCBs, enabling consistent quality. Such consistency significantly reduces the risk of failures or malfunctions in your electronic devices.

Customization Options: A reliable manufacturer offers customized solutions tailored to your specific requirements. With their expertise and knowledge, they can design and manufacture PCBs that precisely align with your needs, optimizing the performance of your electronic devices. Customization options encompass various aspects such as size, shape, materials, and the integration of specific features or functionalities.

Cost-Effectiveness: Opting for a reliable PCB laminate manufacturer can yield long-term cost savings. By utilizing high-quality materials and implementing stringent quality control measures, they mitigate the risk of failures or malfunctions in your electronic devices. This, in turn, reduces the frequency of repairs or replacements, translating into significant cost savings over time.

High Quality PCB Laminates Materials

Timely Delivery: Recognizing the significance of timely delivery, a dependable PCB laminate manufacturer maintains a streamlined manufacturing process. This ensures that your PCBs are delivered punctually, minimizing any disruptions in your production timeline. Timely delivery allows you to meet your deadlines, ensuring that your electronic devices are available to your customers as planned.

All in all, the meticulous selection of a reliable PCB laminate manufacturer is essential for upholding the quality, reliability, and performance of your electronic devices. Their provision of high-quality materials, consistent quality, customization options, cost-effectiveness, and adherence to timely delivery schedules makes them an ideal choice for your PCB manufacturing needs.


With an extensive industry experience spanning over two decades, JarnisTech proudly stands as a leading PCB and PCB assembly manufacturer based in China. Our expertise lies not only in providing quick-turn PCB prototypes and assembly services but also in catering to medium and small volume PCB fabrication requirements. We possess a specialized focus on lamination and sequential lamination techniques, ensuring the long-term cost-effectiveness and optimal functionality of electronic devices.

Circuit board laminates serve multiple purposes in PCB construction, including providing electrical insulation between copper traces, offering mechanical support for electronic components, and ensuring consistent dielectric properties for optimal transmission of electrical currents through the copper traces without attenuation.

When working with circuit board laminates, it is advisable to seek guidance from a professional PCB manufacturer-JarnisTech. Our expertise can help ensure the appropriate selection and use of these materials in your circuit boards, leading to reliable and high-performance PCB assemblies.

What Is PCB Etching and How to Make a perfect PCB Etching?

What Is PCB Etching and How to Make a perfect PCB Etching?

Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are the backbone of most electronic devices. They provide a physical base for mounting and interconnecting components, and they play a crucial role in the operation of electronics. The process to manufacture a PCB involves various steps, one of the most vital of which is the etching process.

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) play a pivotal role in the electronics industry, offering both widespread usage and cost-effectiveness. They enable the assembly of intricate circuits within confined spaces, effectively minimizing the risk of loose connections. In industrial settings involved in PCB manufacturing, various methods and specialized machinery are employed. However, it is also possible to carry out PCB etching at home with relative ease. This article provides valuable insights into the realm of DIY PCB etching and factory PCB etching, encompassing essential steps, required tools, and safety precautions, among other pertinent aspects.

What is PCB Etching?

PCB etching is the process of removing unwanted copper from the board to create a planned circuit layout. This process is integral to circuit board manufacturing as it shapes the pathways for electricity to travel throughout the board.

Furthermore, the etching process employed by industrial circuit board fabricators can be divided into two distinct methods: acidic etching and alkaline etching.

Acidic Etching

Acidic etching is specifically employed in the elimination of copper from internal layers in standard rigid FR-4 circuit boards. This choice is attributed to its capacity for precise and less aggressive action. The acidic process exhibits compatibility with the photoresist material and results in minimal undercutting during the metal etching process. Nonetheless, it is important to acknowledge that acidic etching entails a longer duration compared to alternative methods, thus necessitating a trade-off in terms of time efficiency.

Alkaline Etching

Alkaline etching is employed for the outer layers of circuit boards, as it offers a faster process that helps maintain the uniformity of the remaining copper. Alkaline etching, being more active than acidic etching, necessitates meticulous monitoring to ensure precise execution.

FR4 PCB Etching

The utilization of both acidic and alkaline etching processes is advantageous due to their high etching rates, cost-effectiveness, and ability to effectively etch various metal materials. PCB fabricators must diligently uphold their etching procedures to mitigate exposure to hazardous liquids and fumes, as well as prevent any potential water contamination. Now, let us delve into the application of this etching technique in the fabrication of printed circuit boards.

The Etching Process of PCB Factory

The etching process can be broken down into four main steps:

1. Laminating: The process begins with a substrate (usually fiberglass) covered with a thin layer of copper. This copper is laminated with a resist layer, which is a type of material that’s resistant to the etching solution. This layer is typically photoresist, which is sensitive to light.

2. Exposing: The board, covered in resist, is then exposed to ultraviolet light. A mask, also known as a stencil or photomask, is used to cover the areas of the board that should remain copper. The UV light hardens the exposed photoresist.

3. Developing: After exposure, the board is bathed in a developing solution. This solution removes the unhardened photoresist from the areas not exposed to the UV light, revealing the copper underneath.

4. Etching: The board is then submerged in an etchant solution, often ferric chloride or ammonium persulfate, which dissolves the exposed copper. The hardened photoresist protects the copper beneath from the etchant, and thus the desired circuit pattern is left on the board.

5. Stripping: Finally, the remaining photoresist is stripped away, leaving a clean, etched board ready for the next stages of PCB production.

Importance of PCB Etching

Etching is crucial as it shapes the pathways that allow electricity to flow between different components on the PCB. It ensures that the circuits are accurate and precise, which is vital for the reliable operation of the final electronic product.

Without the etching process, it would be impossible to create the complex, multi-layered circuit designs that are typical in modern electronics. It is a cost-effective method that enables mass production of high-quality, consistent PCBs.

DIY:Materials and Necessary Tools

The subsequent list encompasses key tools and materials that are essential for undertaking the process of DIY PCB etching.

♦  Laser Printer

♦  Cloth Iron

♦  Drill machine

♦  Soldering iron

♦  Steel wool or Sandpaper

♦  Gloves

♦  Photo paper / Glossy paper

♦  PCB board

♦  Permanent marker (preferably black)

♦  Ferric Chloride, also known as the Etching solution

Prior to delving into the step-by-step process of PCB etching at home, it is crucial to emphasize the indispensability of the aforementioned materials and equipment. Their availability is paramount to ensure the successful execution of the PCB etching procedure.

For instance, the absence of rubber gloves can lead to discomfort and potential harm to your hands. Similarly, the lack of steel wool or sandpaper will impede the effective removal of the top oxide layer from the copper material and hinder proper adhesion of the image from the paper onto the photoresist layer of the PCB. Smooth and sanded surfaces facilitate the precise transfer of the image onto the PCB.

Consequently, it becomes evident that the possession of the appropriate tools and materials is imperative to achieve satisfactory results during the PCB etching process. The absence of even a single item from the required list can detrimentally impact the overall experience and outcome of the PCB etching endeavor.

Steps to DIY PCB Etching

The process of DIY PCB etching involves the following steps:

DIY PCB Etching

1. Design and Prepare the PCB Layout: Use PCB design software to create the desired layout of your circuit. Ensure accurate placement of components and trace connections. Once the design is ready, print it on a suitable medium, such as a transparency film or specialized PCB transfer paper.

2. Prepare the Copper Clad Board: Cut a piece of copper clad board to the desired size for your PCB. Clean the board’s surface using steel wool or fine-grit sandpaper to remove any oxidation or impurities. Ensure that the board is free from dust and debris.

3. Transfer the PCB Layout: Place the printed layout onto the copper side of the board, aligning it correctly. Apply heat and pressure using a laminator or a heated iron to transfer the toner or ink from the printed layout onto the board’s surface. Allow the board to cool before proceeding.

4. Etch the PCB: Prepare an etching solution, typically a mixture of ferric chloride or ammonium persulfate and water, following the manufacturer’s instructions. Wear protective gloves and goggles. Immerse the board into the etching solution and agitate it gently. Monitor the etching progress until all unwanted copper is dissolved, leaving only the desired circuit traces.

5. Rinse and Clean the PCB: Remove the board from the etching solution and rinse it thoroughly with water to halt the etching process. Use a scrub brush or sponge to remove any remaining toner or ink. Dry the board completely.

6. Remove the Toner or Ink: To remove the toner or ink from the PCB surface, soak it in an appropriate solvent, such as acetone or lacquer thinner. Gently scrub the board with a brush to remove the remaining toner or ink, revealing the copper traces.

7. Inspect and Test the PCB: Carefully inspect the PCB for any defects or incomplete traces. Use a multimeter or continuity tester to verify the connectivity of the circuit. Make any necessary repairs or modifications if needed.

8. Apply Solder Mask and Silkscreen (optional): If desired, apply a solder mask to protect the copper traces and create a professional appearance. Additionally, you can add a silkscreen layer for labeling components or adding design elements.

It is important to note that DIY PCB etching requires proper safety precautions and adherence to guidelines. Follow all safety measures, such as working in a well-ventilated area, wearing protective gear, and disposing of chemicals appropriately.

Safety Measures While Undertaking PCB Etching

When undertaking PCB etching, it is crucial to prioritize safety and take appropriate measures to mitigate potential risks. The following guidelines should be adhered to:

1. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Always wear the necessary PPE, including safety goggles or glasses to protect your eyes from chemical splashes or flying debris. Gloves and an apron should be worn to shield your skin from corrosive chemicals.

2. Well-Equipped Workspace: Set up your workspace in a well-ventilated area to minimize exposure to hazardous fumes. Ensure that you have access to an eyewash station, a telephone for emergencies, and a fully stocked first aid kit nearby.

3. Proper Handling of Chemicals: Familiarize yourself with the properties and potential hazards of the chemicals used in the etching process. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for storage, handling, and disposal of chemicals. Avoid contact with skin and eyes and work with chemicals in a controlled manner.

4. Power Tool Safety: If power tools are involved, such as drills or routers, exercise caution when operating them. Follow proper safety procedures, including wearing appropriate protective gear and ensuring the workspace is clear of any potential hazards.

5. Adequate Ventilation: Maintain good ventilation in the workspace to minimize the buildup of harmful chemical vapors. If necessary, use exhaust fans or work in a fume hood to remove fumes effectively.

6. Emergency Preparedness: Have a clear understanding of emergency procedures and escape routes in case of accidents or chemical spills. Keep emergency contact numbers readily available and ensure you know how to use the eyewash station and first aid supplies.

7. Seek Expert Guidance: If you are unsure about any aspect of the PCB etching process, consult with an experienced professional or seek guidance from knowledgeable resources. It is better to ask for assistance than to proceed with uncertainty.

By following these safety measures, you can reduce the risk of accidents, injuries, and chemical exposure during PCB etching, ensuring a safer working environment.

Why Choose JarnisTech for Your PCB Etching Solutions?

We understand your interest in engaging in the process of DIY PCB etching. It can be an enjoyable and educational experience, allowing you to acquire new skills. However, we also recognize that this endeavor can present challenges along the way.

At Jarnistech, we aim to provide comprehensive PCB etching solutions that set us apart from numerous other companies in the industry. Our commitment to delivering exceptional quality PCBs is matched by our dedication to providing outstanding customer care and efficient service.

By choosing us, you can benefit from several key advantages. Firstly, we prioritize saving our customers’ valuable time and hard-earned money. Through our streamlined processes and prompt delivery, we ensure a swift turnaround time without compromising on the quality of our products. Additionally, we strive to offer competitive quotes that are difficult to resist, providing our customers with cost-effective solutions.

Jarnistech PCB Assembly Manufacturer

Our overarching objective is to instill peace of mind in our valued clients. This commitment is evident throughout every aspect of our operations, from the quality of our PCBs to our customer-centric approach. We are dedicated to meeting and exceeding customer expectations, ensuring a positive experience throughout the entire engagement.

In summary, when choosing Jarnistech for your PCB etching needs, you can expect exceptional customer service, high-quality products, efficient delivery, and competitive pricing. We look forward to the opportunity to serve you and contribute to the success of your PCB projects.


PCB etching is a crucial step in the production of circuit boards. It is a process that requires precision and accuracy to ensure the final product functions as intended. As electronics continue to miniaturize and grow more complex, the etching process will continue to be a key part of circuit board manufacturing.

Gerber Files: How to Generate in PCB Design Process?

Gerber Files: How to Generate in PCB Design Process?

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) have been integral components of electronic systems for close to 100 years, demonstrating their sustained importance. With the ongoing miniaturization of electronics, demand rises annually for compact, high-density PCBs. Cutting-edge manufacturing technologies now enable smaller circuit boards than ever previously possible. While PCB fabrication requires various materials and processes, it fundamentally relies on Gerber files.

So what exactly are Gerber files, and how are they generated? In this guide, I’ll walk through everything PCB designers need to know about these critical files.

Gerber Files Definition

The Gerber file format serves as the de facto standard in the PCB manufacturing industry, analogous to generating a *.pdf file after designing graphics or text documents. Nearly all PCB designers, whether hobbyists or professionals, have used Gerber files at some point. The format itself is an ASCII file type.

The Gerber format evolved from printing and plotting applications where it was used to recreate images and graphics. Similarly, in PCB design, Gerber files convey all the critical data from the source PCB file – tracks, holes, clearances, etc. – as printable graphics. Leading PCB CAD software can export PCB projects as Gerber files. These programs typically employ the RS-274-X variant of the Gerber standard, as it handles data efficiently.

For PCB designers, producing industry-standard Gerber files is a crucial step before sending a board out for fabrication. The files package all the layered graphical information fabricators need to replicate the design as a physical PCB. Overall, the Gerber format bridges the gap between PCB design software and manufacturing capabilities. As PCB designers, being fluent in generating proper Gerber output ensures our boards can be manufactured smoothly and accurately.

A Gerber file uses a basic ASCII vector format and contains the following elements:

● Configuration settings.

● Macro and aperture definitions.

● Draw and flash command codes.

● XY coordinate data.

Each drill span and image layer of the PCB design is exported as a separate Gerber file from the source design. For a simple two-layer board, over eight files may be transmitted to the PCB manufacturer, potentially including:

● Copper layer image for the bottom of the board.

● Copper layer image for the top of the board. 

● Solder mask and silkscreen images for the bottom and top.

● Drill files showing hole positions and functions.

Plated and non-plated holes are often separated into different files. A complete PCB fabrication data package provides the manufacturer with all necessary instructions, such as required machining processes and other specifications. The comprehensive information in the Gerber files enables the PCB fabricator to accurately replicate the designed board.

What Should Include In Gerber Files?

To generate comprehensive Gerber files for PCB manufacturing, the following layers and information should be included:

PCB Gerber

Signal layers: All active signal layers carrying electrical connectivity must be enabled to produce corresponding Gerber files.

Plane layers: Like signal layers, all power and ground plane layers should be enabled to output Gerber files. Planes provide low-impedance power distribution.

Keepout layer: The board outline and non-conductive keepout zones should be delineated on a layer to clearly define electrical boundaries.

Mechanical layers: Any mechanical layers used for board outlines, mounting holes, etc. need to be enabled for Gerber generation even if they contain no electrical data.

Overlays: Top and bottom silkscreen overlays with component designators and reference markings need outputting.

Board dimensions: Overall PCB dimensions should be noted on the keepout layer or overlays for manufacturing reference.

Layer stackup: The board’s material stackup must be documented on a mechanical layer to provide details like core thickness, prepreg type, etc.

Timestamping: Dating the Gerber files aids version control and assists with any troubleshooting.

Verification: Use Gerber viewing software to validate file accuracy before release.

Thoroughly checking that the Gerber package contains all necessary fabrication data ensures the PCBs made match the intended design. Once validated, the files can be confidently transmitted to the manufacturer.

How to Generate the Gerber Files?

Generating Gerber files is a key part of the process of manufacturing printed circuit boards (PCBs) because these files provide all the necessary information about your PCB design to your manufacturer. Gerber files are a universally accepted standard for this kind of data.

The process of generating Gerber files varies slightly depending on the software you’re using, but the general steps are:

1. Design your PCB: You’ll first need to design your PCB with a software tool. There are many options available, including Eagle, KiCad, Altium Designer, and others.

2. Check your design: Before you can generate the Gerber files, you need to ensure that your design is correct and meets all necessary specifications. Most PCB software will have design rule checks (DRC) that can help with this.

3. Generate Gerber files: Once your design is finalized and checked, you can generate the Gerber files. The exact method for doing this will depend on your software, but it generally involves selecting an option like “Fabrication Outputs” or “CAM Processor” and then choosing the Gerber format. Note that you’ll usually need to generate a separate Gerber file for each layer of your PCB, including the copper, solder mask, and silkscreen layers.

4. Generate NC Drill Files: Alongside the Gerber files, you should also generate NC Drill files. These files are used to guide the drilling process during PCB manufacturing.

5. Inspect the Gerber files: After you’ve generated your Gerber files, it’s a good idea to check them using a Gerber viewer. This allows you to see exactly what your manufacturer will see and to check for any potential issues.

6. Send the Gerber files to your manufacturer: Once you’re satisfied with your Gerber files, you can send them to your manufacturer. They’ll use these files to manufacture your PCB.

Remember, generating Gerber files is a critical step in creating a successful PCB, so it’s important to take the time to get it right.

Kicad, Altium Designer and Eagle Software: How to Generate PCB Gerber Files?

As a PCB designer, we know it’s crucial to understand how Gerber file generation varies across design tools. Each program has its own workflow for producing the manufacturing data needed to get our boards fabricated. In this guide, we’ll share the specific steps I follow to create industry-standard Gerber files when I design PCBs with kicad, Altium Designer, and Eagle.

While the software packages differ, the end goal is the same – translating our schematics and layouts into the layered imaging information that PCB production facilities require. By carefully following the right file export procedures for each tool, we can ensure the Gerber files contain accurate fabrication data for every PCB layer. Before sending any board out for manufacturing, it’s essential that designers verify Gerber file integrity to avoid potential issues down the line. Knowing the ins and outs of generating proper Gerber output gives us confidence our boards will be produced as intended.

Kicad- Kicad Exporter Gerber

Here are the steps to generate Gerber files using Kicad:

Kicad EDA

1. Open the PCB project in Kicad. Go to File > Plot to open the plot dialog box.

2. Under “Plot Format” select “Gerber”

3. Enable the layers you want to output under “Layers to plot”. This typically includes:

● F.Cu (Top Copper Layer)

● B.Cu (Bottom Copper Layer)

● F.Mask (Top Solder Mask)

● B.Mask (Bottom Solder Mask)

● F.SilkS (Top Silkscreen)

● B.SilkS (Bottom Silkscreen)

● Edge.Cuts (Board Outline)

4. Under “Drill and Map Files” check the option to generate drill files.

5. Adjust other settings like output directory, file naming, units etc.

6. Click “Plot” to generate the Gerber and drill files.

7. The output folder will now contain the Gerber files, Excellon drill file, and drill map file.

8. Use a Gerber viewer to inspect the files before releasing to fabrication.

Following these steps in Kicad will produce the necessary Gerber manufacturing data from your PCB design, ready for sending to production.

Altium Designer- Altium Gerber Files

Here are the steps to generate Gerber files using Altium Designer:

1. Open the PCB project in Altium Designer.

2. From the menu, select File > Fabrication Outputs > Gerber Files. This will open the Gerber settings window.

3. In the layers tab, select all the layers you need to generate Gerber files for. Typically this includes:

● Top and Bottom Copper Layers.

● Solder Mask Layers.

● Silkscreen Layers.

● Drill Drawing Layer.

● Board Outline Layer.

4. In the options tab, select the output directory and make any other adjustments to file naming, units etc.

5. Enable the “Generate Drill File” option to output the NC drill files.

6. Click on “Output All” to generate the Gerber and drill files. This may take some time depending on the board complexity.

7. The output folder will now contain the Gerber files, NC drill files and a Drill Map file detailing hole sizes and locations.

8. Use a Gerber viewer to inspect the files carefully before sending to fabrication.

Following these steps allows you to reliably produce industry-standard Gerber manufacturing data directly from your finished Altium PCB designs.

Eagle- Eagle Gerber Files

Here are the steps to generate Gerber files using Eagle CAD:

1. Open the PCB project in Eagle.

2. Run the CAM processor tool (File > CAM Processor).

3. In the CAM job, enable the following layers for Gerber output:

● op Copper

● Bottom Copper

● Solder Mask Top

● Solder Mask Bottom

● Silkscreen Top

● Silkscreen Bottom

● Board Outline

4. Check the “Use Route Commands” option.

5. Enable drill file output.

6. Set output directory and file naming preferences.

7. Click “Process Job” to generate the Gerber and drill files.

8. The output folder will contain the Gerber files (named per the layers), an Excellon drill file, and drill aid file detailing hole sizes and locations.

9. Use a Gerber viewer to verify the files before releasing to your PCB manufacturer.

Following these steps when using Eagle CAD will produce industry-standard Gerber files from your board design, containing all needed data for fabrication.

Gerber Files Play a Critical Role in PCB Manufacturing

PCB RS-274x Gerber Files

Originally containing just basic configuration settings, macro definitions, and aperture sizes, Gerber files have evolved to encode more comprehensive fabrication data. While the core Gerber file format remains unchanged, the capabilities of PCB plotters and lasers have advanced significantly.

Modern PCB lasers still rely on the same Gerber file parameters to guide fabrication. However, the aperture limitations of earlier vector plotters no longer apply. Gerber data directs lasers on the precise locations and specifications for trace generation. Plotters translate the Gerber files into raster images to produce the PCBs.

Although Gerber file specifications continue to be enhanced, the format fundamentals persist for consistency. For the foreseeable future, this decades-old standard will likely experience only incremental changes, rather than a major overhaul. PCB manufacturers worldwide depend on Gerber files daily to translate design files into physical boards. Maintaining format continuity, while allowing measured improvements, helps sustain this vital manufacturing bridge.


The Gerber file format serves as the de facto standard for transferring information between PCB designers and manufacturers. Gerber files utilize the RS-274-X 2D ASCII format to convey all conductive, mechanical, text, and keepout layer data from the source PCB design, along with any necessary manufacturing notes.

Everything You Should to Know on Altium PCB Design Software

Everything You Should to Know on Altium PCB Design Software

Are you interested in the field of electronics? If so, you might be familiar with Altium PCB, a prominent software used for designing printed circuit boards. For those who are unfamiliar, allow me to provide an in-depth analysis of this revolutionary technology. Whether you are a novice or well-versed in this software, you will undoubtedly find the unique aspects of Altium PCB fascinating. Join me as we explore the remarkable world of Altium PCB and its impact on the field of technology.

As an engineer, you may have experienced the challenges of designing a circuit board on a traditional piece of paper. Thankfully, Altium PCB was created to address these difficulties and enhance the efficiency of your work. This software enables you to create a printed circuit board using your computer, eliminating the need for manual drawings. With a wide array of tools at your disposal, Altium PCB empowers you to design not only visually appealing circuit boards but also intricate and detailed ones.

Altium PCB Design Software

Altium Designer is a popular Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design software widely used by engineers and designers for the creation of complex and high-quality electronic products. The software integrates a range of features and functionalities that make it a comprehensive tool for PCB design.

Key Features

Schematic Capture: This is a critical tool in Altium Designer that allows engineers to draw out their circuit designs before turning them into PCB layouts.

PCB Layout: This feature helps designers to lay out the physical aspects of their PCB. It includes tools for placing and moving components, routing traces, and more.

3D Visualization: Altium Designer provides a 3D visualization tool that allows designers to view their PCBs from different angles. This can help them spot potential issues that may not be visible in 2D.

Signal Integrity Analysis: This tool helps engineers ensure that their designs will function as expected by checking for potential signal integrity issues.

Real-time BOM Management: Altium Designer includes a bill of materials (BOM) management tool that updates in real time as you make changes to your design.

Component Libraries: A large library of components is available in Altium Designer, providing access to thousands of components with their footprints and schematics.

Design Rule Checking (DRC): DRC is a powerful feature that checks your PCB design against a set of rules you define, helping to ensure your design meets necessary specifications and standards.

Learning Altium Designer

Like any complex software, learning to use Altium Designer effectively takes time and practice. Here are some tips to get you started:

Altium Designer

Tutorials and Guides: Altium provides a range of tutorials and guides on their website. These can be a great place to start if you’re new to the software.

Community Forums: Altium has a strong user community, and their forums can be a valuable resource for getting help and advice.

raining Courses: There are also several online training courses available that can help you learn the ins and outs of Altium Designer.

Practice: The best way to learn is by doing. Try designing a simple PCB to start with and gradually take on more complex projects as you become more comfortable with the software.

Benefits of Altium PCB Design Software

Altium PCB design software offers several notable benefits for engineers and designers in the field of electronics. Here are some key advantages of using Altium PCB:

User-Friendly Interface

Altium PCB provides an intuitive and user-friendly interface, making it accessible to both novices and experienced professionals. The software’s layout and tools are designed to streamline the design process and improve productivity.

Comprehensive Design Tools

Altium PCB offers a wide range of design tools that empower engineers to create intricate and detailed circuit board designs. These tools include schematic capture, component library, design rule checks, and advanced routing options, among others. The comprehensive toolset caters to various design requirements and ensures high-quality output.

Enhanced Collaboration

Altium PCB supports seamless collaboration between team members. It allows multiple designers to work on the same project simultaneously, enabling efficient sharing of design files, annotations, and comments. This collaborative environment fosters teamwork and accelerates the design process.

Integration with Other Software

Altium PCB integrates smoothly with other software commonly used in the electronics industry, such as mechanical design tools and simulation software. This integration enables a seamless transfer of data between different software platforms, ensuring compatibility and facilitating a more holistic design approach.

Design Rule Checks (DRC)

Altium PCB incorporates powerful design rule checks, which automatically verify the design against predefined manufacturing rules and constraints. This feature helps identify potential errors or design flaws early in the process, reducing the chance of costly mistakes and ensuring compliance with manufacturing guidelines.

Component Library and Management

Altium PCB includes an extensive component library with a vast collection of pre-designed electronic components. This library saves time and effort by providing ready-to-use components, reducing the need for manual component creation. Additionally, Altium PCB allows users to manage and update their component libraries, ensuring accurate and up-to-date design data.

Real-Time 3D Visualization

Altium PCB offers real-time 3D visualization capabilities, allowing designers to view their circuit boards in a three-dimensional representation. This feature aids in visualizing the final product, verifying component placements, and detecting potential mechanical conflicts early in the design phase.

Manufacturing Documentation

Altium PCB generates comprehensive manufacturing documentation, including precise bill of materials (BOM), assembly drawings, and fabrication outputs. This documentation streamlines the manufacturing process and ensures accurate communication between designers and manufacturers.

Ongoing Support and Community

Altium provides ongoing support and a vibrant user community for its PCB design software. Users can access extensive documentation, video tutorials, forums, and knowledge bases to seek assistance, exchange ideas, and stay updated on the latest industry trends.

Disavantages of Altium PCB Design Software

While Altium PCB design software offers numerous benefits, it also has certain limitations and disadvantages that users should be aware of. Here are some potential drawbacks of using Altium PCB:

Altium PCB designer

Cost: Altium PCB is a professional-grade software, and as such, it comes with a significant price tag. The cost of licensing Altium PCB may be prohibitive for individual users, small businesses, or hobbyists with limited budgets.

Steep Learning Curve: Altium PCB has a rich set of features and tools, which can lead to a steep learning curve for new users. It may take time and effort to become proficient in utilizing the software’s capabilities fully. While Altium provides resources and documentation, the initial learning process can be challenging.

Resource Intensive: Altium PCB can be resource-intensive in terms of system requirements. The software demands a powerful computer with ample processing power, memory, and storage. Users with older or less capable hardware may experience performance issues or limitations.

Complexity for Simple Designs: Altium PCB is designed to handle complex and advanced circuit board designs. For users working on relatively simple or straightforward projects, the software’s extensive feature set may feel overwhelming or unnecessary. It might be more efficient to use a simpler and more lightweight software solution in such cases.

Limited Platform Support: Altium PCB primarily runs on Windows operating systems, limiting its availability to users of other platforms such as macOS or Linux. Although workarounds like virtual machines or emulators exist, they may not provide the same level of performance and integration as the native Windows version.

Lack of Advanced Simulation Capabilities: While Altium PCB offers basic simulation capabilities, it may not be as comprehensive as specialized simulation software packages. Users requiring in-depth circuit analysis and simulation may need to integrate Altium PCB with additional simulation tools or consider alternative software solutions.

Dependency on Altium Ecosystem: Altium PCB is tightly integrated with the Altium ecosystem, which includes other software tools and services. While this integration can be beneficial, it also means that users may become dependent on the Altium ecosystem for their design workflow. This can limit flexibility and make it challenging to transition to or collaborate with users of different software platforms.

It’s worth noting that some of these disadvantages can be mitigated or addressed through alternative software choices, additional tools, or by considering individual project requirements. It’s essential to evaluate your specific needs and constraints before deciding on the most suitable PCB design software for your purposes.


By leveraging Altium PCB, engineers can benefit from a range of features that streamline the design process. These include advanced schematic capture capabilities, a comprehensive component library, intuitive design rule checks, and extensive routing options. The software’s schematic capture function allows users to create clear and organized circuit diagrams, making it easier to understand and modify the design. Additionally, Altium PCB offers a vast library of components, enabling designers to quickly access and integrate various electronic parts into their projects.

Therefore, Altium Designer is a comprehensive PCB design software packed with many powerful features. It’s used by professionals worldwide and is known for its flexibility and efficiency. However, like any advanced tool, it requires some time and effort to master. With the right resources and plenty of practice, you can become proficient in using Altium Designer and create high-quality PCB designs.

Why Blank Printed Circuit Board Need to Milling?

Why Blank Printed Circuit Board Need to Milling?

In the manufacturing process of printed circuit boards (PCBs), various techniques are employed to shape and refine the blank PCBs before they are ready for component assembly. One such essential step is milling, which involves the removal of excess material from the blank PCB to achieve the desired shape, dimensions, and features. Milling plays a crucial role in PCB fabrication, ensuring precision, accuracy, and functionality of the final product.

By understanding the purpose and advantages of milling blank PCBs, manufacturers, designers, and electronics enthusiasts can gain valuable insights into this critical step, enabling them to make informed decisions and optimize their PCB fabrication processes. So, let’s dive into the details and unravel the significance of milling in PCB manufacturing.

What is Blank PCB?

A blank PCB (Printed Circuit Board) refers to a circuit board that has been manufactured but does not have any electronic components or traces on it. It is essentially a bare board without any circuitry or functionality. Blank PCBs are typically used in the electronics industry as a starting point for designing and creating electronic devices.

The manufacturing process of a blank PCB involves several steps. First, a layer of copper is applied to the board, which serves as the conductive material for the circuitry. Then, a layer of protective material called solder mask is applied to prevent accidental short circuits and to insulate the copper traces. Finally, holes are drilled into the board to facilitate component placement and connection.

Once the blank PCB is ready, it can be used for various purposes. Designers and engineers can mount electronic components such as resistors, capacitors, integrated circuits (ICs), and connectors onto the board to create a functioning electronic device. The components are soldered onto the copper pads and connected using conductive traces on the board, forming the desired circuitry.

Blank PCBs provide a foundation for custom electronic designs, allowing for flexibility and customization in creating specific electronic systems or prototypes. They are commonly used in industries such as consumer electronics, telecommunications, automotive, aerospace, and many others.

Blank PCB Materials

Here are some common blank PCB materials:

FR4 Blank PCB Base Material

FR-4: This is the most common and inexpensive material for PCBs. FR-4 is a composite of woven fiberglass cloth with an epoxy resin binder. It has good mechanical strength and is suitable for most general purpose applications.

CEM-1: Woven cotton paper substrate with epoxy resin. It has better thermal properties than FR-4 but lower mechanical strength. Used for RF and high frequency applications.

Rogers: A variety of high frequency PCB materials by Rogers Corporation with dielectric constants tailored for high speed digital and RF applications. Common Rogers materials include RO4003, RO4350B, RO4835.

Polyimide: Flexible PCB material capable of withstanding high temperatures. Common brands include Kapton and Apical. Used for flexible circuits and rigid-flex boards.

Alumina: Ceramic PCBs with high thermal conductivity used for power circuits and high temperature operation. More expensive than FR-4.

Teflon/PTFE: Woven fiberglass reinforced fluoropolymer with excellent chemical resistance and dielectric properties. Used for high frequency RF boards.

The choice depends on electrical, thermal, mechanical and cost requirements. FR-4 is suitable for most general applications, while more advanced materials are used for specialized high speed or high frequency needs. The PCB fab house can advise on blank material selection.

Blank PCB Color

Blank PCBs typically have a characteristic color that is determined by the base material used for the substrate. The most common color for blank PCBs is typically light yellow or tan. This color comes from the fiberglass-reinforced epoxy resin material (FR-4) that is commonly used for the substrate. FR-4 has a natural yellowish color due to the presence of the fiberglass reinforcement.

While light yellow is the most common color, it’s important to note that blank PCBs can also be found in other colors, such as light green, blue, or even black. These variations in color can be attributed to different formulations of the substrate material or the application of additional coatings or finishes.

It’s worth mentioning that the color of blank PCBs is primarily for aesthetic purposes and does not impact the functionality or performance of the board. The color may vary depending on the manufacturer or specific requirements of the project.

Why Blank PCB Used for Milling?

A blank Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is used for milling because the process involves the mechanical removal of copper layers to create an electrical circuit based on a digital design. This is why the PCB starts as a “blank”, meaning it’s fully coated with a layer of copper on one or both sides.

A few reasons why a blank PCB is used for milling include:

Customization: Milling allows for the creation of highly customized PCB designs. Starting from a blank PCB means that the design can be tailored to the exact specifications of the user.

Rapid Prototyping: If you want to test a design concept quickly, PCB milling is a great option. You can start with a blank PCB, mill your design, and have a functional prototype within a short time.

Cost-Effective for Small Batches: For large-scale production, methods like PCB etching might be more cost-effective. However, for small batches or single boards, milling can be more economical because it doesn’t require the creation of an etching mask.

Reduced Waste: With milling, only the unwanted copper is removed. This could result in less waste compared to methods like etching, where the entire copper layer is first applied and then largely removed.

No Chemicals Required: Unlike etching methods, which use chemicals to remove unwanted copper, milling is a mechanical process that doesn’t require potentially harmful chemicals.

Remember that while milling has its advantages, it also has limitations. It might not be suitable for very complex or high-density PCB designs, and the accuracy is somewhat dependent on the quality of the milling machine used. Each method has its place, and the choice between them depends on the specific requirements of the PCB design project.

What is Blank PCB Milling?

Milling Blank PCB

Blank PCB milling is a process for creating custom printed circuit boards (PCBs) by using a computer-controlled milling machine to cut away copper from a blank PCB laminate. It involves the following main steps:

● Design the PCB layout in CAD software and export the Gerber files.

● Secure a blank PCB substrate, usually single or double sided FR-4 or copper clad laminate.

● Align and clamp the blank PCB on the milling machine bed.

● Load the Gerber files into the milling machine software. This converts the PCB layers into toolpaths for the milling bit.

● Perform tool change to load the appropriate end mill cutter. Small end mills are used to carve fine traces.

● Perform surface profiling to account for PCB surface irregularities. This ensures proper depth control.

● Run the milling program which mills away copper from the blank PCB to isolate traces and create pads/vias based on the PCB design files.

● Clean away milling debris and inspect the milled PCB under microscope.

● Post processes like drilling holes, edge plating and solder mask application are done to finish the milled PCB.

Milling provides quicker turnaround time than chemical etching and allows creating fully custom PCBs in a small lab setup. But the equipment cost is higher than etching.

Useful Tips for Blank PCB Milling

Use fine end mills for tracing – Single flute carbide end mills down to 0.1mm work well for PCB traces. Multi-flute end mills are preferred for milling large copper areas.

Minimize runout – Make sure the end mill is tightly secured and has minimal runout. Otherwise it will affect milling quality.

Use sacrificial substrate – Attach a sacrificial fiberglass or acrylic layer on top of the PCB blank during milling. This helps preserve the end mill life.

Optimize feed and speed – The milling feed rate and spindle RPM have to be optimized based on the end mill size to get clean edges. Faster feed and lower RPM for smaller tools.

Use climb milling – Where the cutter rotation opposes the feed direction. It gives better results than conventional milling for PCBs.

Secure PCB blank – Use vacuum hold down or dabs of glue to securely hold the PCB blank in place during milling.

Clear debris – Periodically clear away milling debris using brushes and compressed air to avoid re-cutting.

Limit trace width – Keep trace widths greater than the end mill diameter for cleanest cutting.

Apply solder mask – A solder mask coating will protect the milled traces from oxidation and damage.

PCB Milling

Proper fixturing, cutter selection, speeds/feeds and debris control are key to getting good results from PCB milling.


Milling blank PCBs serves multiple purposes and offers significant advantages in the PCB manufacturing process. From achieving precise shapes and dimensions to facilitating component fitment, design flexibility, and signal integrity, milling plays a crucial role in producing high-quality PCBs. It allows for customization, improves thermal management, reduces weight, and optimizes manufacturing costs. By recognizing the purpose and advantages of milling, PCB designers and manufacturers can harness its potential to create superior and reliable electronic products.

The Best PCB Panelization Guide

The Best PCB Panelization Guide

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) panelization is a critical step in the electronics manufacturing process that plays a significant role in optimizing efficiency and cost-effectiveness. As electronic devices become more compact and complex, the demand for smaller and more intricate PCB designs continues to rise. To meet these demands, manufacturers employ panelization techniques to efficiently produce multiple PCBs on a single panel.

This article aims to explore the impact of panelization design on PCB fabrication, emphasizing its importance and offering valuable insights for achieving optimal design.

What is PCB Panelization?

PCB panelization is a manufacturing technique that involves producing multiple smaller boards interconnected as a single array, facilitating efficient movement through the assembly line. Depanelization allows individual boards to be separated from the array for packaging or installation into products. Another approach involves adding a processing edge around each board to increase its width for compatibility with the assembly line.

To fully leverage the advantages of mass production through panelization, it is crucial to consider the following design factors:

PCB array strength: Achieving a balance between easy depanelization and maintaining array integrity during production is essential. Increasing the number of boards per array enhances strength and reduces vibration.

Component layout: Careful consideration should be given to the placement of components and connectors, particularly those extending beyond the board’s edge. This is especially important for sensitive SMT components located near the board’s edge.

PCB shape: The shape of the board can complicate the panelization process. Ideally, rectangular boards are preferred. However, if the board has a complex shape, alternating images from 90° to 180° can help optimize space on a panel. Utilizing a CAD program can assist in fitting unusually shaped boards into an array.

Tooling holes: Arrays and break-away processing edges can provide space for tooling holes, which are crucial for automated testing on the assembly line.

By considering these design considerations, PCB panelization can enhance the efficiency of fabrication and assembly processes, enabling streamlined mass production and improved overall product quality.

PCB Panelization Design Method

When it comes to PCB panelization design, there are several methods and techniques that can be employed to achieve optimal results. Here are some commonly used approaches:

Grid-Based Panelization

This method involves arranging PCBs in a grid pattern on a panel. The boards are evenly spaced and aligned to facilitate efficient manufacturing and assembly processes. Grid-based panelization is straightforward and allows for easy handling and depanelization.

Tab Routing

Tab routing involves adding small tabs or bridges between individual PCBs on a panel. These tabs provide mechanical support during manufacturing and allow for easy separation of the boards after assembly. Tab routing is often used when the PCBs are of a similar size and shape.

Breakaway Rails

Breakaway rails are additional sections of material added around the perimeter of the panel, creating a larger panel size. The individual PCBs are located within these rails and can be easily separated after manufacturing. Breakaway rails provide stability and support during fabrication and assembly.

Mouse Bite Panelization

In this method, small perforations or mouse bites are created between individual PCBs, allowing for easy separation. Mouse bites are small, partially cut sections that can be easily snapped or broken to separate the boards. This method is commonly used when space constraints are a concern.


PCB Panelization V-scoring

V-scoring involves creating V-shaped grooves on the panel between the individual PCBs. These grooves allow for easy separation by bending the panel along the scored line. V-scoring is particularly useful when working with larger boards or when a clean and precise separation is desired.

Panel Array Design

In this approach, multiple PCBs of the same design are replicated and placed side by side on a larger panel. This method maximizes production efficiency by allowing for simultaneous manufacturing and assembly of multiple boards.

The choice of panelization design method depends on factors such as PCB size, quantity, shape, assembly requirements, and desired level of automation. It is important to consider the specific needs of the project and consult with PCB manufacturing experts to determine the most suitable panelization method for optimal fabrication and assembly results.

V-score vs. Tab Routing PCB Panels 

The decision of whether to use V-scoring or tab routing for a PCB panel depends on the specific design considerations for that board. While these two methods are not mutually exclusive and can be combined when appropriate, there are tradeoffs to weigh for each one.

V-scoring is generally a faster process than tab routing, requiring less time on the routing machine. However, tab routing may provide higher edge quality, with only small laminate nubs that can be easily sanded off to leave smooth edges. In contrast, V-scoring tends to leave rougher edges across the board.

The shape of the PCBs in the panel should be evaluated when selecting the panelization method. V-scoring performs well for square or rectangular boards, while tab routing accommodates more irregular board outlines.

If the design has components placed near the board edges, tab routing may be preferable to avoid damaging these components, provided the tabs themselves are not positioned too close to the edges.

Finally, V-scoring is the more material-efficient technique, producing less waste than tab routing. This can significantly reduce costs on a per board basis.

By weighing these factors against the specific needs of the PCB design, engineers can make an informed decision between V-scoring and tab routing to optimize the panelization process. A combination approach is also possible when elements of both methods would benefit the board layout.

When is PCB Panelization Required?

PCB panelization is typically required in the following situations:

Mass Production: When producing PCBs in large quantities, panelization is necessary to optimize the manufacturing process. By arranging multiple boards on a single panel, efficiency is improved, as it allows for simultaneous fabrication and assembly of multiple PCBs.

Cost-Effectiveness: Panelization offers cost savings in terms of materials, setup, and handling. By maximizing the use of manufacturing equipment and minimizing material waste, panelization helps reduce production costs, making it a preferred method for cost-effective PCB manufacturing.

Assembly Line Compatibility: PCBs that need to be processed through automated assembly lines often require panelization. By designing the panel layout to match the assembly line’s capabilities, it ensures smooth and efficient automated assembly processes.

Space Optimization: Panelization is useful when trying to optimize the utilization of available space on a production panel. By arranging PCBs strategically, designers can maximize the number of boards that can fit on a single panel, minimizing wasted space.

Handling and Transportation: Panelization simplifies the handling and transportation of PCBs. By keeping multiple boards connected on a panel, they can be easily moved as a single unit, reducing the risk of damage or misplacement during transit.

Depanelization Requirements: If individual PCBs need to be separated from the panel after fabrication and assembly for packaging or installation purposes, panelization is necessary. It allows for controlled and efficient depanelization processes, ensuring the integrity of the individual boards.

PCB Panelization

It is important to consider the specific production requirements, quantity, and desired outcomes when determining whether PCB panelization is necessary. Consulting with PCB manufacturers and considering factors such as manufacturing capabilities, cost-efficiency, and logistics can help determine the need for panelization in a particular project.

Design Considerations for PCB Panelization

When designing PCB panelization, there are several important considerations to take into account to ensure a successful and efficient manufacturing process. Here are some key design considerations for PCB panelization:

Board Orientation and Alignment

Ensure that the PCBs are properly aligned and oriented within the panel. Consistent alignment helps maintain uniformity throughout the manufacturing process and facilitates accurate component placement and assembly.

Panel Size and Material

Determine the appropriate panel size based on the PCB dimensions and manufacturing requirements. Consider the material used for the panel, such as FR-4 or aluminum, and its compatibility with the PCB fabrication and assembly processes.

Spacing and Clearances

Provide adequate spacing between PCBs on the panel to prevent electrical and mechanical interference. Consider the clearance requirements for components, connectors, and traces that extend beyond the board edges. Adhere to design rules and industry standards to ensure proper functionality and reliability.

Tooling Holes and Fiducial Marks

Incorporate tooling holes into the panel design to facilitate accurate registration and alignment during manufacturing processes, such as drilling, routing, and assembly. Include fiducial marks for automated optical inspection (AOI) and component placement accuracy.

Breakaway Tabs or V-Grooves

If using breakaway tabs or V-grooves for depanelization, carefully design their placement to ensure easy separation without damaging the PCBs. Consider the size and quantity of tabs or grooves needed for proper mechanical support during manufacturing and easy separation afterward.

Panelization Method Selection

Choose the most suitable panelization method based on the PCB design and manufacturing requirements. Consider factors such as board size, shape, assembly process, and depanelization needs. Evaluate the advantages and limitations of different panelization methods to optimize efficiency and minimize waste.

Design for Assembly (DFA)

Design the panelization layout with assembly in mind. Group components with similar functionalities or assembly processes together to minimize assembly time and improve efficiency. Consider the accessibility of components for automated assembly equipment, such as pick-and-place machines.

Design for Testing

Plan for efficient testing and inspection of the PCBs within the panel. Ensure that test points are accessible and properly positioned for automated or manual testing methods. Consider the placement of test pads, test points, or test vias for electrical testing and debugging purposes.

Documentation and Communication

Clearly document and communicate the panelization design to PCB manufacturers and assembly partners. Provide comprehensive manufacturing instructions, including panelization drawings, assembly data, and any specific requirements or considerations for successful production.

PCB Panelization Process

By considering these design considerations during the PCB panelization process, you can optimize the manufacturing efficiency, assembly quality, and overall success of your PCB production. Collaborate closely with PCB manufacturers and assembly partners to ensure alignment with their capabilities and requirements.

 How to Process the PCB Panelization design?

The process of PCB panelization design involves several key steps to ensure a successful outcome. Here is a general outline of the process:

1. Determine Panel Size and Quantity: Start by determining the desired panel size based on the PCB dimensions and manufacturing capabilities. Consider factors such as machine limitations, handling requirements, and production efficiency. Decide on the number of PCBs to be included in each panel based on production volume and cost considerations.

2. Define Panelization Method: Choose the appropriate panelization method that suits your project requirements. Consider factors such as board size, shape, assembly process, and depanelization needs. Common methods include grid-based panelization, tab routing, breakaway rails, mouse bite panelization, V-scoring, or panel array design.

3. Create Panelization Layout: Using a PCB design software or a dedicated panelization tool, create a panelization layout that arranges the PCBs on the panel according to the chosen method. Take into account the required spacing between boards, alignment, and any additional features like tooling holes or fiducial marks. Ensure that the layout adheres to design for manufacturability (DFM) guidelines.

4. Consider Component Placement: Pay attention to component placement on the PCBs within the panel. Avoid placing sensitive components near the panel edges or areas prone to stress during depanelization. Ensure proper clearance for connectors and other components that extend beyond the board edges.

5. Verify Design Rules and Constraints: Before finalizing the panelization design, run design rule checks (DRC) to ensure that the layout conforms to manufacturing and assembly requirements. Verify that there are no violations related to spacing, copper clearances, solder mask, or silkscreen markings.

6. Generate Panelization Files: Once the panelization design is complete, generate the necessary files for manufacturing. This usually includes Gerber files, NC drill files, assembly data, and any additional documentation or instructions required by the manufacturer.

7. Collaborate with PCB Manufacturer: Engage in communication and collaboration with the chosen PCB manufacturer. Share the panelization design files and discuss any specific requirements or recommendations. Seek their expertise to ensure the design is optimized for their manufacturing capabilities.

8. Review and Iteration: Review the panelization design with the manufacturer and address any feedback or modifications required. Iterate on the design if necessary to achieve the desired manufacturability, assembly efficiency, and cost-effectiveness.

By following these steps and collaborating closely with the PCB manufacturer, you can effectively process the PCB panelization design and ensure a smooth transition from design to production.

The Effect of Panelization Design on PCB Fabrication and Assembly

Panelization is an important aspect of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) manufacturing that involves the process of arranging multiple PCBs onto a larger board, or panel, during fabrication. The panel is then broken apart into individual PCBs after assembly. This process allows for the simultaneous fabrication and assembly of multiple PCBs, improving overall efficiency and reducing costs. However, the design of the panel can influence various factors in PCB fabrication and assembly, including cost, manufacturability, and reliability.

Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness

Panelization design can significantly influence the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of PCB production. A well-designed panel can maximize the number of PCBs on a single panel, reducing material waste and lowering production costs. Furthermore, by allowing for the simultaneous processing of multiple boards, panelization can increase production speed and reduce labor costs.


The design of the panel can also affect the manufacturability of the PCBs. For instance, boards that are too closely spaced may be difficult to route or may result in damaged boards when depaneling. On the other hand, too much space between boards can lead to wasted material and increased costs. Additionally, the panel design should also consider aspects such as the placement of fiducial marks and tooling holes, which can influence the accuracy and ease of assembly.


Panelization design can impact the reliability of the final PCBs. For example, inadequate spacing or poorly designed break-off tabs can lead to damage during depaneling, potentially affecting the functionality and reliability of the PCBs. Moreover, the panel design should ensure that it can withstand the stresses of assembly processes, such as soldering and component placement, without warping or breaking.

Design for Manufacturability (DFM)

Panelization is an important aspect of Design for Manufacturability (DFM) in PCB production. DFM involves designing the PCB in a way that optimizes its manufacturability, considering factors such as ease of fabrication, assembly, testing, and cost-effectiveness. A well-designed panel can improve all these aspects, leading to a more efficient and cost-effective production process.

PCB Panelization Design

Therefore, panelization design plays a crucial role in PCB fabrication and assembly, affecting factors such as efficiency, cost-effectiveness, manufacturability, and reliability. Therefore, it’s important to carefully consider the design of the panel in the early stages of the PCB design process.


The significance of panelization design on PCB fabrication and assembly cannot be overstated. A carefully planned panelization design has a profound impact on the manufacturing process, improving efficiency, assembly, testing, and resource utilization. By integrating the specific requirements of PCB fabrication and assembly into the design process, engineers can achieve a streamlined and cost-effective production, resulting in high-quality PCBs suitable for a wide range of applications.

At JarnisTech, we are proud to offer our exceptional PCB panelization services to a global customer base. With our highly skilled and experienced team of professionals, we assure you that all your PCB panelization needs will be catered to with utmost care and precision. Whether you require panelization for small-scale projects or large-scale production, we have the expertise to deliver outstanding results. Contact us today to request a quote and experience the quality and efficiency of our PCB panelization services.

Inspect a Solder Joint BGA: You Need to Know Everything

Inspect a Solder Joint BGA: You Need to Know Everything

BGA solder joint inspection is a crucial quality control process that involves visual and X-ray examination of solder joints. Its primary purpose is to ensure the high quality and reliability of these joints. The inspection helps identify various defects such as cold solder joints, bridging defects, voiding defects, and solder balling defects.

However, due to the intricate nature and irregular shape of solder joints, visual inspection alone is challenging and insufficient. Consequently, this article aims to highlight the effectiveness of X-ray imaging as a preferred method for BGA solder joint inspection.

Now, let us delve into an exploration of the common BGA inspection methods before understanding why X-ray imaging stands out as a highly effective approach.

Some Common Methods Used to Inspect a BGA Solder Joint

Inspecting a Ball Grid Array (BGA) solder joint can be a technical and complicated task because the solder balls are not directly visible. It requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to accurately assess the quality of the joint. Here are some common methods used to inspect a BGA solder joint:

1. X-Ray Inspection

X-ray inspection is the most common method used for inspecting BGA solder joints. This non-destructive testing method can detect soldering defects like solder bridges, voids, or missing balls.

There are two types of X-ray systems: 2D and 3D.

● 2D X-Ray: This method provides a top-down view of the BGA, which can be useful for identifying gross defects. However, it may not reveal problems with individual balls that are hidden by others.

● 3D X-Ray (CT Scan): This method provides a three-dimensional view of the BGA, allowing for a more detailed inspection. This can reveal defects that may not be visible in a 2D X-ray.

2. Acoustic Micro Imaging (AMI)

AMI uses ultrasound technology to inspect solder joints. The ultrasound waves can penetrate the package and reflect back to create an image of the joints. This can reveal voids, cracks, and delaminations that may not be visible using X-ray inspection.

3. Endoscopic Inspection

Endoscopic inspection involves using a small camera to visually inspect the solder joints. This method can reveal defects on the surface of the solder balls, but it doesn’t provide information about the interior of the joints.

4. Destructive Testing

In some cases, it may be necessary to use destructive testing methods to inspect BGA solder joints. This could involve de-soldering the BGA and inspecting the individual solder balls. While this method can provide detailed information about the joints, it destroys the BGA in the process and is typically used for failure analysis rather than routine inspection.

Remember, each of these methods has its strengths and weaknesses, and the best approach often involves using a combination of them. It is also important to have trained personnel conduct these inspections to ensure accurate results.

What is a BGA X Ray Machine?

PCB BGA X-ray Inspection

A BGA X-ray machine, also known as a BGA X-ray inspection system or BGA X-ray system, is a specialized equipment used for the inspection and analysis of Ball Grid Array (BGA) solder joints. It employs X-ray imaging technology to provide detailed and non-destructive visualization of the internal structures and connections within BGA packages.

The BGA X-ray machine typically consists of the following key components:

X-ray Source: It generates X-ray radiation that passes through the BGA package and is detected on the other side. The X-ray source can be a microfocus X-ray tube or a more advanced technology like a sealed X-ray tube or an X-ray generator.

Detector: The X-ray detector captures the X-ray radiation that passes through the BGA package. It may utilize technologies such as phosphor screens, flat-panel detectors, or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensors. The detector converts the X-ray radiation into visible images or digital signals for analysis.

Control System: This system manages and controls the operation of the BGA X-ray machine. It includes software interfaces, user controls, and settings for adjusting X-ray parameters such as voltage, current, exposure time, and image capture settings.

Manipulation Mechanism: The BGA X-ray machine may have a motorized stage or a manipulator that allows precise positioning and rotation of the BGA package during the inspection process. This enables capturing X-ray images from different angles and viewpoints.

Imaging and Analysis Software: The software associated with the BGA X-ray machine provides tools for image acquisition, enhancement, measurement, and analysis. It allows operators to examine the X-ray images, identify potential defects or anomalies in the solder joints, and make informed decisions based on the inspection results.

The BGA X-ray machine is specifically designed to address the challenges of inspecting BGA solder joints, which are hidden beneath the package and not easily visible through traditional visual inspection methods. It enables thorough examination of solder quality, joint integrity, voiding, bridging, and other potential defects, helping to ensure the reliability and quality of electronic assemblies that utilize BGA components.

BGA X ray Machine Working Principle

A BGA X-ray machine works by utilizing X-ray imaging technology to penetrate the Ball Grid Array (BGA) package and capture detailed images of the internal structures and solder joints. The process can be summarized in the following steps:

Preparation: The BGA package to be inspected is prepared by ensuring it is properly positioned and securely held in place within the X-ray machine. This may involve using a manipulator or motorized stage to achieve precise alignment for accurate imaging.

X-ray Generation: The X-ray machine produces X-ray radiation using an X-ray source, which is typically a microfocus X-ray tube. The X-ray source emits a controlled beam of X-rays towards the BGA package.

X-ray Penetration: The X-ray beam passes through the BGA package, interacting with the materials it encounters, including the solder joints, substrate, and other internal components. The X-rays can penetrate the package due to the different absorption rates of the materials.

X-ray Detection: On the opposite side of the BGA package, there is an X-ray detector. The detector captures the X-rays that have passed through the package. The detector can be a phosphor screen, a flat-panel detector, or a CMOS sensor, depending on the specific X-ray machine.

Image Conversion: The X-ray detector converts the captured X-rays into visible images or digital signals. Phosphor screens emit visible light when exposed to X-rays, which can be captured using a camera. Flat-panel detectors and CMOS sensors directly convert X-rays into digital signals.

Image Analysis: The captured X-ray images or digital signals are processed and analyzed using specialized software associated with the X-ray machine. The software provides tools for image enhancement, measurement, and analysis. Operators can examine the images to identify potential defects or anomalies in the solder joints, such as voids, bridging, or insufficient solder.

Inspection and Evaluation: Based on the analysis results, operators can make informed decisions regarding the quality and reliability of the solder joints. They can determine if the solder joints meet the required standards or if any further actions, such as rework or repair, are necessary.

BGA Components

The BGA X-ray machine’s ability to penetrate the package and provide internal imaging enables comprehensive inspection of the solder joints, which are otherwise hidden from view. This non-destructive inspection method helps ensure the integrity and reliability of electronic assemblies that incorporate BGA components.

Which is the Best Method for the Inspection of a Solder Joint?

There is no universally superior method for BGA inspection, as each approach possesses its own advantages and disadvantages. The selection of a suitable method depends on the specific defects to be detected and the type of solder joints under inspection.

For instance, if the objective is to identify defects such as solder voids or closed circuits, visual inspection proves to be a viable method. Visual inspection allows for direct observation of the solder joints, enabling detection of surface-level irregularities.

When considering the use of an X-ray machine for BGA inspection, it is essential to understand the various types of defects that can be detected through this method. X-ray machines are primarily employed to identify voiding defects, wherein excess solder is not adequately deposited on the substrate. This specific defect type can only be accurately detected using X-ray imaging.

In addition to voiding defects, X-ray machines can also identify other solder joint issues such as cold solder joints and bridging defects. Cold solder joints occur when the solder paste does not receive sufficient heat or pressure during the soldering process. While infrared cameras can also detect this defect, an X-ray machine can be utilized for its identification as well.

Bridging defects, on the other hand, manifest when the solder paste extends between the package and the board or when it spans across dual-side copper. Similar to cold solder joints, infrared cameras can be employed to identify bridging defects, but an X-ray machine can also effectively detect this type of defect.

To determine when it is appropriate to use an X-ray machine for BGA inspection, it is crucial to have a comprehensive understanding of its functioning. This knowledge enables better decision-making regarding the optimal timing for utilizing the X-ray machine in the inspection process. By maximizing the utilization of the device, unnecessary expenditures in terms of time and resources can be avoided.

Inspect a Solder Joint BGA Steps

To perform BGA X-ray inspection, the process typically involves the following steps:

Equipment Setup: Begin by selecting a suitable X-ray machine and placing it on the worktable. The BGA board to be inspected is positioned on the X-ray table and securely fixed in place, often using a blanket or other securing methods. Ensure the X-ray machine is switched on and ready for operation.

Alignment: The BGA board should be positioned perpendicular to the X-ray source to ensure accurate imaging. Proper alignment helps achieve clear and precise X-ray images for analysis.

Image Capture: Press the “take picture” button or initiate the imaging process using the X-ray machine’s control panel. This action captures an X-ray image of the BGA solder joints.

Analysis of Solder Joints: The X-ray images obtained are subjected to analysis using dedicated image processing software. The software allows for quantitative analysis of solder joints, including counting the number of solder balls and measuring spacing. This data is then used to calculate metrics such as the percentage of missing balls, spacing, and spacing differences.

Detection of Missing Balls: By examining the X-ray images, operators can identify any gaps in the solder joints, indicating missing solder balls. Air within the void space appears as radiolucent material. The number of gaps observed corresponds to the number of missing solder balls in that joint.

Detection of Bridging Defects: X-ray image analysis can also reveal the presence of bridging defects. These defects manifest as gaps between solder balls, positioned above the substrate’s surface. The bridging defect appears as an abnormally bright spot in the X-ray image. When observed under a microscope, bridging defects disrupt the dome-shaped formation of the solder ball’s top surface.

Detection of Voiding Defects: Voiding defects, another type of solder joint defect, are identified through X-ray image analysis. These defects appear as abnormally bright spots in the X-ray image. The radiolucent material within the void space may consist of air or solder paste. The presence of air indicates the presence of a voiding defect.

BGA Assembly

By following these steps and utilizing the image analysis method outlined above, BGA X-ray inspection allows for comprehensive evaluation of solder joints, enabling the detection of missing balls, bridging defects, and voiding defects. This analysis aids in maintaining the quality and reliability of BGA assemblies.