In the field of printed circuit board (PCB) engineering, the selection of suitable materials is paramount to ensure optimal performance, reliability, and functionality of electronic devices. One such material that has gained recognition for its exceptional properties is Nelco N4000-13. Designed to meet the demanding requirements of modern electronic applications, Nelco N4000-13 offers a range of electrical, thermal, and physical attributes that make it an ideal choice for high-performance PCBs.
This article delves into the key features and advantages of Nelco N4000-13, shedding light on its electrical conductivity, thermal performance, mechanical stability, and other distinctive properties. By exploring the remarkable characteristics of Nelco N4000-13, PCB engineers can gain valuable insights into harnessing its full potential for their intricate electronic designs.
Key Features of the Nelco N4000-13
CAF and Z-CTE:
The Nelco N4000-13 is a highly reliable and durable material that offers excellent resistance to CAF (Conductive Anodic Filament) and low Z-CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion). It is specifically designed for use in digital and RF applications, providing impressive thermal, signal loss, and electrical properties with a Tg (Glass Transition Temperature) of over 210 degrees Celsius.
One of the key advantages of the Nelco N4000-13 is its exceptional thickness control, which is particularly useful for applications that require tight tolerance impedance. It also boasts low Dk (Dielectric Constant) and Df (Dissipation Factor) values, making it ideal for high-speed signal propagation and reducing signal distortion, especially in applications that operate at frequencies ranging from 1 to 10 GHz.
For enhanced performance and low-loss operations, the Nelco N4000-13 offers a signal integrity (SI) option. It can withstand high temperatures (max-reflow temperature of approximately 245 degrees Celsius) and provides excellent results even at higher temperatures (up to 260 degrees Celsius), depending on factors such as the PCB design, manufacturing process, and construction variations.
Wide Range of Options:
Speaking of construction variations, the Nelco N4000-13 offers a wide range of options to suit different requirements. These include variations with different copper weights and varying glass styles. Some examples of available variations are those with low-profile copper, standard copper, RTFOIL, and double treat.
UL 94V-0 and IPC-4101/29:
Furthermore, the Nelco N4000-13 is available as a two-mil core component that meets capacitive laminate specifications. It also meets industry standards such as UL 94V-0 and IPC-4101/29.
Overall, the Nelco N4000-13 is a versatile and high-performance material that is well-suited for demanding applications that require reliability, high-speed signal propagation, and signal integrity. With its excellent properties, thickness control, and various construction variations, it offers flexibility and performance for a wide range of PCB manufacturing needs.
Physical Properties of the Nelco N4000-13
The physical properties of the Nelco N4000-13 can include the following:
Density: The density of the material is typically around 1.85 grams per cubic centimeter.
Tensile Strength: The material has a high tensile strength, typically around 400 megapascals (MPa), which makes it suitable for applications requiring strength and durability.
Electrical Conductivity: The Nelco N4000-13 is designed to have low electrical conductivity, making it suitable for applications where electrical insulation is required.
Thermal Conductivity: The material has low thermal conductivity, which means it does not conduct heat efficiently. This property can be advantageous in applications where thermal insulation is needed.
Flame Resistance: The Nelco N4000-13 is known for its flame resistance, making it suitable for applications where fire safety is a concern.
Flexibility: The material is typically flexible, allowing it to be easily formed or shaped into different configurations.
Chemical Resistance: The Nelco N4000-13 is resistant to many chemicals, including acids, bases, and solvents, which makes it suitable for use in harsh chemical environments.
Weather Resistance: The material is typically resistant to weathering, UV radiation, and moisture, making it suitable for outdoor applications.
It is important to note that these properties can vary depending on the specific formulation and manufacturing process of the Nelco N4000-13.
Nelco N4000-13: Mechanical properties
When subjected to external forces, materials exhibit specific characteristics known as mechanical properties. These properties play a crucial role in determining the material’s response to applied forces. In the case of the Nelco N4000-13, the following mechanical properties are noteworthy:
1.Modulus of Elasticity:
The Nelco N4000-13 demonstrates a modulus of elasticity of 22.8 GPa (Y-axis) and 29.0 GPa (X-axis). This property describes the material’s ability to deform elastically when subjected to stress and subsequently return to its original shape when the force is removed. The specified values indicate the stiffness of the material along the respective axes.
The Nelco N4000-13 exhibits Poisson’s ratios of 0.11 (Y-axis) and 0.13 (X-axis). Poisson’s ratio describes the material’s lateral contraction when subjected to an axial strain. The provided values indicate the degree of lateral expansion or contraction that occurs in response to applied forces along the specified axes.
The Nelco N4000-13 demonstrates notable peel strengths under different conditions. After the solder float process, it exhibits a peel strength of 1.31 kN/m. At high temperatures, the peel strength increases to 1.42 kN/m. Additionally, after exposure to process solutions, the peel strength reaches 1.58 kN/m. Peel strength refers to the ability of the material to resist separation or delamination when subjected to peeling or shearing forces.
These mechanical properties of the Nelco N4000-13 provide valuable insights into its behavior when subjected to various types of mechanical stress. The modulus of elasticity indicates its stiffness and ability to recover shape, while Poisson’s ratio describes its lateral deformation tendencies. The peel strength values highlight the material’s resistance to delamination or separation under specific conditions. Understanding these mechanical properties is crucial for designing and engineering reliable and robust printed circuit boards using the Nelco N4000-13.
Electrical Properties of the Nelco N4000-13
The electrical properties of a component are crucial in assessing its ability to conduct electric current effectively. The Nelco N4000-13 exhibits the following electrical properties:
The Nelco N4000-13 has a volume resistivity of 1.00e + 13 ohms-cm (E-24/125) and 1.00e + 14 ohms-cm (C-96/35/90). Volume resistivity refers to the material’s resistance to electric current flow through its volume. The specified values indicate the material’s resistance to electrical conduction under different conditions.
The surface resistance of the Nelco N4000-13 is 1.00e + 13 ohms (C-96/35/90) and 1.00e + 13 ohms (E-24/125). Surface resistance measures the material’s resistance to electric current along its surface. The provided values represent the material’s ability to conduct or impede electrical conduction on its surface.
The Nelco N4000-13 exhibits different dielectric constant values depending on the frequency and measurement conditions. At a frequency of 1.00e + 10 Hz, the dielectric constant is 3.6 (at the stripline) and 3.7 (at the split post cavity). At a frequency of 1.00e + 9 Hz, the dielectric constant is 3.7 (RF impedance), and at a frequency of 2.50e + 9 Hz, it is 3.7 (at the split post cavity). The dielectric constant quantifies the material’s ability to store electrical energy when subjected to an electric field.
The Nelco N4000-13 possesses a dielectric strength of 47.2 kV/mm. Dielectric strength refers to the maximum electric field strength a material can withstand before electrical breakdown or insulation failure occurs.
The Nelco N4000-13 exhibits different dissipation factor values at various frequencies and measurement conditions. At a frequency of 1.00e + 10 Hz, the dissipation factor is 0.0080 (split post cavity), and at a frequency of 2.50e + 9 Hz, it is 0.0090 (split post cavity). At a frequency of 1.00e + 10 Hz (stripline), the dissipation factor is also 0.0090. The dissipation factor represents the material’s ability to dissipate electrical energy in the form of heat.
The Nelco N4000-13 demonstrates an arc resistance of 123 seconds. Arc resistance measures the material’s ability to withstand the formation and propagation of an electric arc without electrical breakdown.
These electrical properties of the Nelco N4000-13 play a significant role in evaluating its performance and suitability for various applications in the field of PCB engineering. Understanding these properties is essential for designing and manufacturing reliable and efficient electronic circuits using the Nelco N4000-13 material.
Nelco N4000-13: Thermal Properties
Thermal properties are essential in assessing a component’s ability to conduct and manage heat. The Nelco N4000-13 exhibits the following thermal properties:
CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion), Linear: The Nelco N4000-13 has CTE values of 10.0 – 14.0 µm/m-°C in the temperature range of -40.0 to 125°C, 70.06 µm/m-°C in the range of 50.0 to 210°C, and 280.22 µm/m-°C in the range of 210 to 260°C. The CTE describes the material’s dimensional change in response to temperature variations. The provided values represent the expansion or contraction of the material under different temperature conditions.
Specific Heat Capacity: The Nelco N4000-13 has a specific heat capacity of 1.21 J/g-°C. Specific heat capacity quantifies the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a given amount of material by one degree Celsius.
Thermal Conductivity: The Nelco N4000-13 exhibits a thermal conductivity of 0.350 W/m-K. Thermal conductivity refers to the material’s ability to conduct heat. The specified value indicates how effectively the material can transfer heat energy.
Glass Transition Temperature (Tg): The Nelco N4000-13 has a glass transition temperature of 200°C (TMA), 210°C (DSC), and 240°C (DMA). The glass transition temperature represents the temperature at which an amorphous material transitions from a rigid, glassy state to a more flexible, rubbery state.
Decomposition Temperature: The Nelco N4000-13 has a decomposition temperature of 350°C. Decomposition temperature refers to the temperature at which the material starts to break down or undergo significant chemical changes.
Flammability: The Nelco N4000-13 has a flammability rating of V-0. This rating indicates that the material has passed specific flammability tests and exhibits excellent resistance to ignition and flame propagation.
Understanding these thermal properties is crucial in designing and selecting appropriate materials for printed circuit boards. The Nelco N4000-13’s thermal properties provide valuable insights into its ability to handle heat, expand or contract with temperature changes, dissipate heat through conduction, withstand high temperatures, resist decomposition, and exhibit flame retardancy.
Nelco N4000-13 Applications
The Nelco N4000-13 boasts a wide range of versatile applications, making it an invaluable asset in various domains. This advanced technology finds particular relevance in the following key areas:
Routing/Internet Switching Systems:
The Nelco N4000-13 is highly suitable for constructing efficient routing and internet switching systems. Its exceptional performance characteristics enable seamless data transmission and routing, facilitating smooth and reliable network operations.
High-Speed Storage Networks: Leveraging the Nelco N4000-13, one can develop high-speed storage networks with impressive data transfer capabilities. This enables rapid and efficient storage and retrieval of large volumes of information, enhancing overall system performance.
High-Speed Service Generation:
The Nelco N4000-13 plays a crucial role in generating high-speed services, ensuring swift and uninterrupted communication between various devices and systems. Its advanced features contribute to the smooth delivery of data-intensive services, meeting the demands of modern applications.
Wireless Communication Development:
With its exceptional properties, the Nelco N4000-13 is instrumental in the development of wireless communication systems. It facilitates reliable signal transmission, enabling seamless connectivity and enhanced performance in wireless networks.
The Nelco N4000-13 serves as a reliable substrate for Chip Scale Package (CSP) attachment. Its excellent electrical and thermal properties ensure secure and efficient bonding of CSPs, enabling compact and high-density electronic packaging.
MCM-Ls (Multi-Chip Modules – Laminate):
Employing the Nelco N4000-13, engineers can fabricate MCM-Ls, which are highly integrated electronic modules comprising multiple chips. The material’s superior electrical characteristics and reliability contribute to the successful assembly and operation of such advanced modules.
The Nelco N4000-13 is well-suited for the construction of Ball Grid Array (BGA) multilayers. These multilayer structures, utilizing the material’s exceptional properties, enable efficient and reliable interconnection between integrated circuits, enhancing the overall performance of electronic systems.
Backplanes, critical components in electronic systems, benefit greatly from the utilization of the Nelco N4000-13. Its high-speed signal transmission capabilities and excellent dimensional stability make it an ideal choice for constructing reliable and high-performance backplane architectures.
The Nelco N4000-13 material is particularly well-suited for the fabrication of fine-line multilayers. Its exceptional dimensional accuracy and precise etching characteristics enable the creation of intricate circuit patterns with narrow trace widths, facilitating the implementation of complex electronic designs.
The Nelco N4000-13 excels in the construction of surface-mounting multilayers, which are widely used in electronic manufacturing. Its superior thermal stability and compatibility with surface-mount technology contribute to the reliable and efficient assembly of surface-mounted components.
In the ever-evolving landscape of electronic design, the role of advanced materials cannot be overstated. Nelco N4000-13 has emerged as a game-changer, empowering PCB engineers to push the boundaries of innovation and deliver cutting-edge electronic devices. With its exceptional electrical properties, including high electrical conductivity and resistivity, Nelco N4000-13 enables efficient current conduction and precise signal transmission. Moreover, its impressive thermal performance, characterized by low thermal resistance and excellent heat dissipation, ensures the longevity and reliability of electronic components.
Additionally, the material’s mechanical stability, demonstrated by its low coefficient of thermal expansion and high glass transition temperature, guarantees the structural integrity of PCBs even in challenging operating conditions. By embracing the remarkable attributes of Nelco N4000-13, PCB engineers can embark on a journey of transformative designs, paving the way for next-generation electronic devices that redefine the boundaries of technology and performance. As the industry continues to evolve, Nelco N4000-13 stands as a testament to the power of advanced materials in shaping the future of PCB engineering.